25 April 2018

How did it sound? #5: U varieties

The U with dot was transliterated by me as Û; most modern Dutch cognates are spelled with "ui", a sound that is not used in German or English (pron. like French fauteuil).
The less common U with one spoke in the middle was transliterated by me as Ü; most modern Dutch cognates are spelled with "eu", a sound not used in English, but similar to the Nordic "ø" or German "ö".

Like with the other vowels, the use is in many cases not consequent. For example, UT / ÛT, BÛTA / BUTA, BÛRA / BÜRA, FÛL / FÜL etc.

The most common word with Ü is the verb MÜGE (to may). Common words with Û are STJÛRAR (steersmen or navigators) and THÛSAND (thousand). Most common use of the regular U is in HJU (she), THJU (the), TILTHJU (so that), in plurals ending -UM, and verbs ending -UN or -UM. It is remarkable that in the modern versions of the words with the regular U, the sound has often changed into totally different directions.

The probe texts had too few examples, so I made lists below, taken from the whole text. The list with the regular U is not complete, but the other two lists are, more or less. They are meant to give an idea of how the modern versions of the words (if applicable) are.


With normal U, besides HJU, THJU, TILTHJU, plurals -UM and verbs -UN, -UM: a short u as in luck:

ADDUR === (D/E) adder
ALGÁDUR === (archaic D) altegader, allegaar
BURCH === (D) burcht, (G) Burg
BUTA (also Û) === (D) buiten, (F) bûten
BUWGJA === (D) buigen, (G) biegen
DUBBEL === (D) dubbel, (F) dûbel, (G) doppelt, (E) double
DUN === (D) duin, (F) dún, (G) Düne, (E) dune
FJUR === (D) vuur, (F) fjoer, (G) Feuer, (E) fire
FJUWER vier === (D/G) vier, (F) fjouwer, (E) four
FLUX === (D) vlug, (F) fluch
HUS (also Û) === (D) huis, (G) Hause, (E) house
KRUPA === (D) kruipen, (E) creep
LJUD === (D) lieden, (G) leute
LUK === (D) geluk, (F) lok, (E) luck
LUSTUM === (D) lusten, (E) lusts
NJUGON (also V) === (D) negen, (F) njoggen, (G) neun, (E) nine
RJUCHT === (D/G) recht, (F) rjocht, (E) right
RUN === (D) ren-, (F) run/rin-, (G) renn-/rann-, (E) run/ran
SJUGUN/-ON === (D) zeven, (G) sieben, (E) seven
SMUK- === (D) smuk-, (D) schmuck
STURF === (D) stierf/storf, (G) starb/storb
SUSTER === (D) zuster, (G) Schwester, (E) sister
THRJU === (D) drie, (G) drei, (E) three
UT (also Û) === (D) uit, (F) út, (G) aus, (E) out

With Û (U-dot): a long ui as in French fauteuil:
BISLÛTA === (D) besluiten
BJÛSTRE === (D) bijster
-BRÛDA === (D) bruiden/bruien
BRÛWSENDE === (D) bruisende
BÛDA === (D) buidel
BÛGJA === (D) buigen
BÛTA === (D) buiten (also U)
BÛRA === (D) beuren (also Ü)
BÛRA === (D) buren
BÛRT === (D) buurt
DJÛRA
FÛL === (D) veel (also Ü)
GÁDÛRAD
GRÛSICH
GRÛWEL
GÛLDE === (D) huilde
HLÛD === (D) luid
HÛD === (D) huid
HÛNING === (D) honing (mostly Ü)
HÛS === (D) huis (also U)
JÛWGADE === (D) juichten
KRÛDON === (D) kruiden
LJÛCHT (mostly LJUCHT)
LJÛD.GÉRT (mostly LJUD)
LÛD === (D) luid
MÛS === (D) muis
SKÛRUM
SMÛGRIGE === (D) smuigerig
STJÛRAR === (D) sturen
STÛT === (D) stuit
SÛD- === (D) zuid
SÛGANE === (D) zuigen
THJÛSTER === (D) duister
THÛSOND === (D) duizend
TJÛGANDE === (D) betuigend
TRÛLED
ÛLYSUS
ÛT (also U) === (D) uit, (F) út, (G) aus, (E) out
VRTJÛGAD === (D) overtuigd
WÁKENDÛM (exception, mostly -DOM)

With Ü (U-spoke): a long eu as in German Köln:
BÜR- (also Û) === (D) beuren
DÜGED === (D) deugd, (G) Tugend
DÜRE === (D) deur, (F) doar, (G) Tür, (E) door
FRÜ === (D) vreugde, (G) Freude
FRÜCHDA === (D) vruchten/vreugde, (G) Früchte/Freude
FÜGEL === (D/G) vogel
FÜL === (D) veel (also Û, dialect veul), (G) viel
FÜR === (D) voor (exception, mostly FÁR), (G) für
GÜR === (D) geur
HÜGJA === (D) heugen
HÜNING (1x Û) === (D) honing, (F) huning, (G) Honig, (E) honey
JÜGED === (D) jeugd, (G) Jugend
MÜGE/-A/-ON === (D) mogen, (E) may
SIN.TÜGA === (D) zintuigen
SÜMER (1x) === (D) zomer, (F) simmer, (G) Sommer, (E) summer
TÜNIS === (D) name Teunis
TÜNTJA === (D) name Teuntje

24 April 2018

How did it sound? #4: O, Ô and ʘ

On the page that shows how the various letters are derived from the Wheel, the ʘ (O with central dot, transliterated by me as Ó) is not listed, but it is used 23 times in the manuscript for words, many of which also occur spelled with Ô (O with two lowest spokes or A inside). I think it is not actually a separate letter, but rather another way of making the Ô or OA. In the following list some varieties (bolded) and modern versions (Dutch, Frisian, German, English) are added (not all). It would be interesting to see how the varieties are distributed among the various authors or parts of the manuscript. To artificially create this non-random spelling variety (in order to create the 'illusion of authenticity', as the hoax-conspiracy theorists call it) would have been a hell of a job.

BÓSMA === (D) boezems, (G) Busen, (E) bosoms
BÓT- (also BÔT) === (D/G) boot, (E/F) boat
FÓ === (D) fout (French: faux)
HÓLA === (D) holen, (F) hoalen, (G) Höhlen, (E) holes
LÓFT === (D) lucht, (F) loft, (G) Luft
MÓN (MÔN, MAN, MÀN) === (D) men, (G) man
MÓNATH/ -A (also with Ô) === (D) maand, (F) moanne, (D) Monat, (E) month
NÓM- (more common with Ô) === (D) naam-/noem-, (F) namme, (E/G) name
NÓS (also NÔS) === (D) neus, (F) noas, (G) Nase, (E) nose
ÓL- (ÔL-, AL-, ÁL-)
ÓN- (ÔN)
ÓNI === (G) ohne
ÓRA (mostly Ô) === (F) oare, (D/G) andere, (E) other
ÓWERS (mostly Ô)
SNÓRANE (also with Ô or Á) === (D) snoeren
TÓNGAR === (D) donder, (F) tonger, (G) Donner, (E) thunder
WÓLKA  === (D/F/G) wolken

The list above already has examples of words that also occur with A, Á or À in stead of Ó or Ô. The same variety is common in the list of words with Ô (again, list may not be complete):

BLÔS- === (D) bloos-, (E) blush-
-BÔGE === (D) boog, (F) bôge, (E) bow, (G) Bogen
BÔM- (BÁM-) === (D) boom, (F) beam, (G) Baum
BÔT- === (D/G) boot, (E/F) boat
BRÔND === (D) brand, (F) brân
FÔNE (FÁNE) === (D) vaan, (F) fane, (G) Fahne
FÔR- === (D) voor-, (F) foar-, (G) vor-, (E) for-
HÔND- (HÁND) === (D/G/E) hand, (F) hân
HÔNE/ -A === (D) haan, (F) hoanne, (G) Hahn
"JON. JÔN. JHON ÀND JÁN" (varieties of name John, Jan, Jon)
KRÔN- === (D) kroon, (F) kroan, (G) krone
LÔMERA (LÀMKES) === (D) lammeren, (F) lammen, (G) Lämmer, (E) lams
-LÔN- (-LÁN-) === (D) laan, (F) leane/loane, (E) lane
LÔNG- (LANG) === (D/G/F) lang, (E) long
LÔS (LÁS) === (D) los/loos, (F) los/loas, (G) los/lose, (E) loose
-MÔN- (-MÀN-/-MAN-) === (D/E/F) man, (G) Mann
MÔNE/MÔNATH === (D) maan/maand, (F) moanne, (G) Mond/Monat, (E) moon/month
MÔRNE (MORNE) === (D/G) morgen, (F) moarn, (E) morning
-NÔM-, (-NÁM-, NOM) === (D) naam-/noem-, (F) namme, (E/G) name
NÔSE === (D) neus, (F) noas, (G) Nase, (E) nose
ÔGON, ÔGNUM (ÁGNUM/ÁGNE/ÁGA) === (D) ogen, (F) eagen, (G) Augen, (E) eyes
ÔL- (AL-, ÁL-) [note: ÔLLERWECHS, ÔLLERLÉJA only on pp. 164-166 by Ljudgeart the Geartman; elsewhere: ALLERWÉIKES, ALLERLÉJA]
ÔLD- (ALD-, OLD) === (D) oud-, (F) âld, (G) alt-, (E) old-
ÔN (only 1x) (AN) === (D) aan, (F) oan, (G) an, (E) on
-ÔR-, -E, -A, -UM, ÔTHER-, ÔWERS === (F) oare, (D/G) andere, (E) other
PLÔNK (PLANK-) === (D/E) plank, (F) planke
RÔS- === (D) roos, (F) roas, (E/G) rose
SKÔNDA (SKANTHA) === (D/G) schande, (F) skande
SNÔRA- (SNÁRA) === (D) snoeren
VNTHÔNKES === (D) ondanks

This variety of spelling suggest that also in the distant past there already was a variety of pronunciation. The Ó or Ô wil have been a long, open sound somewhere on the sliding scale between O and A.


Many of the words listed above also occur spelled with a normal O. I only mentioned a few examples of that. The following list is of words from the two probe texts with the regular O.

1) ending -OD/-OL/-OK (stressed) >>> sound O, OE, U, OO
BOK- === (D/F) boek, (G) Buch, (E) book
FLOD === (D) vloed, (F) floed, (G) Flut, (E) flood
GOD === (D) goed/God, (G) gut/Gott, (E) good/God
JOL === (D) joel, (G) Jul, (E) yule

(elsewhere: MOD === (D/F) -moed, (G) mut, (E) mood >>> derived from this root:)
MODER === (D) moeder, (G) Mutter, (E) mother
OD === (old-D) ode/oede/hode/hoede?

2) ending -ON/-ONG/-OND/-OST (unstressed) >>> these O sounds have dissapeared!
BÀRDON === (D) baarden
GVNGON (GVNGEN) === (D/G) gingen, (F) gongen
KÉMON === (D) kwamen, (F/G) kamen, (E) came
KRÉION === (D) kregen, (F) krigen
KRÛDON === (D) kruiden, (F) krûden, (G) Kräuter
NJUGON === (D) negen, (F) njoggen, (G) neun, (E) nine
RÉKNONG === (D) rekening, (G) Rechnung, (E) reckoning
THÛSOND === (D) duizend, (F) tûsen, (G) tausend, (E) thousand
-TIGOSTE === (D) -tigste, (F) -tichste, (G) -zigste, (E) -tiest
WERON === (D/G) waren, (E) were

3) followed by -CH or -GH (stressed)
BROCHT === (D) bracht, (F) brocht, (G) brachte, (E) brought
NOCHTA === (D) genoegens/geneugten/noten, (E) naught/nought
TOGHATER- === (D/F) dochter, (G) Tochter, (E) daughter
WROCHTE === (D) wrochtte, (E) wrought

4) short O sound
FOLK === (D/G) Volk, (E/F) folk
FON === (D) van, (F) fan, (G) von
-OF === (D) af, (F) ôf, (G) ab, (E) off
OKKE (name)

5) longer O sound
FORMA === (D/G) vorm-, (F) foarm-, (E) form-
FORTH === (D) voort, (F) fuort, (G) fort, (E) forth
OER === (D/E) over
MOT === (D) moet, (F) moat, (G) muss, (E) must
SKOLDE === (D) zoude, (F) soe, (G) sollte, (E) should
STOF === (D/F) stof, (G) Stoff/Staub, (E) stuff

TO (TOLIK: TO-LIK) === (D) te/toe, (G) zu, (E) to

6) long and sometimes spelled with Ô, Ó, Á
-NOMATH === (D) -noemd/-naamd

23 April 2018

How did it sound? #3: A, Á, À


These three varieties of A are not always clearly distinguishable. Sometimes words that are usually written with Á or À respectively seem to be written as a normal A and sometimes the copyist seems to have made a Á or À by mistake where it should simply have been a regular A.

Some rules of thumb:

1) A normal short or unstressed A (phonetically a short "ɐ" or "ä") is always used at the end of plurals, examples:
BOKA, THINGA, GÀRSA, BÔMA, MANGÉRTA, MÀNNESKA, FRÜCHDA, NOCHTA, DRÁMA, SVNA, TOGHATERA. (Note: some of these plurals also occur as ending with -UM in stead of -A.)

2) Infinitives of verbs also end with -A, examples:
WÁRJA, -DÀRVA, -LÍSA, -SKRÍVA, KVMA, WÉSA.
Also conjugations ending -ATH, -ADE, -ANDE, examples:
-BIFATTATH, -BINOMATH, MÁKADE, GLÍANDE.

3) The accentuated open A (phonetically "a") is spelled Á, examples:
WÁRJA, ÁK, THÁ, ÁT.LAND, WÁK, MÁKADE, DÁNA, KWÁD, BLÁT, ÁDAMA, DRÁMA.
The modern Dutch varieties of these words are often spelled/pronounced with long A or long O (ook, waak, maakte, daarna, kwaad, bloot, adem, dromen), German AU or O (auch, Traum/Träume, bloß)

4) The À (phonetically "æ" or "ɛ"; as in Englis "that") is often interchangeable with E:
ÀFTER / EFTER, -DÀRVA / -DERVA, BÀRN / BERN, THÀT / THET, GÀRS / GERS.

5) Many of the plain A's (mostly at the end of a word) have disappeared in our modern languages, indicating that they were probably not pronounced clearly, examples:
BOKA === (D/F) boeken (G) Bücher (E) books
KVMA === (D) komen, (F) komme, (G) kommen, (E) come
THISSA === (D) deze, (F) dizze, (G) diese, (E) these
VSA === (D) onze, (F) ús, (G) unsere, (E) our
THRJA === (D) drie, (G) drei, (E) three
NAVT === (D) niet, (F) net, (G) nicht, (E) not
and: THINRA, HJA, RA

6) Some words still exist more or less in the same form, examples:
AL- (as in ALLE, ALLET, ALHWAT) === (D/F/G) al-, (E) all-
AS === (D/G) als, (F/E) as
ANFANG === (D) aanvang, (G) Anfang

How did it sound? #2: the double V or W


From the same two texts as in part #1, the various words are listed as examples. Use as consonant, like V, is easy to reconstruct, as it is still mostly the same in our comparing languages Dutch, German, English and Frisian:

As consonant in text 1:

WÁRJA === (D) bewaren, (F) bewarje, (G) bewahren (E) beware
WÉRON === (D/G) waren, (E) were
WET === (F) wiet, (E) wet
WÉI === (D/G) weg, (F) wei, (E) away
WÁK === (D) waak, (G) wache, (E) wake/ watch
SAHWERSA = HWERSA: lit. where-so => when
SKRÉWEN - see #1 Text 1
FJVWER- - see #1 Text 1

As consonant in text 2:
WROCHTE === (D) wrochtte, (E) wrought
KWIK === (D) kwik/ kwiek, (E) quick
KWÁD === (D) kwaad, (F) kwea
TWILIF, TWÉN === (D) twaalf/ twee-, (G) zwölf/ zwei-, (E) twelve/twin
WARME === (D/G) warme, (F) waarm, (E) warm
WÀRTH === (D) werd
WÉRON (see above)
WÉSA === (D) wezen
ALHWAT === (D/F) -wat, (G) -was, (E) -what

Less clear is the situation where W is followed by -N or -L, in WRD- or as separate  word or prefix WR-:

In text 1:
WR- (as in WRLANDISK, WRSKRÉVEN, WRSKRÍVA) === (D) overlands, overschrijven; in English literally 'over-landish' (foreign), 'over-scribe' (copy): short for OVER/OVIR (*note below)
WRDEN === (D/G) -worden/ -werden, (F) waarden
stamp from 'Oermuseum'

In text 2:
WR- (as in WR.ALDA) === (D) oer-, (G) ur- (example: oertijd/ Urzeit, oerwould/ Urwald): short for OVER/OVIR (*note below)
NW === (D) nu, (F) no, (E) now

Elsewhere:
WN- (in WN-won/ WND-wound) === (D) won/wond, (F) wûn/wûne, (G) won/Wunde, (E) won/wound
WL === (D) vuil, (E) foul

My guess is that in these cases pronunciation will have been like a short (E) oowe, (G) uwe, (D) oewe: ooweRLANDISK, ooweR-ALDA, Noowe, ooweN, ooweND, ooweL.
However, there will probably have been many dialects/varieties, for example:
oeRLANDISK, oeR-ALDA, Noe, etc. or:
weRLANDISK, weR-ALDA, etc.
There is no clear difference, after all, and even today there are similar differences (mostly of pronouncing the vowels) between the many dialects.

=====================

* WR / VR short for OVER / OVIR

1) evidence from within OLB

a) varieties THÉR.OVIR, THÉR.WR, THÉR.VR
(the latter is most common; also without dot or space instead)
=== (D) daarover, (G) darüber (F) oer dat, (E) lit. 'there-over', meaning 'about that'.

b) varieties OVER SKRÍVA, WRSKRÍVA, VRSKRIVA
(see above)

c) varieties OVER.ET, VR.ET
for example:
PEST WAS OVER.ET LAND KVMEN - pest had come over the land
WELDICH SKOLDE WERTHA VR.ET ÉLLE LÁND - should become ruling over the whole land

d) OVIR / OVER is also shortened as OER / OR:
TONÔMATH OVIRA.LINDA
OVIR.A LINDA.WRDA
OERA.LINDA. THÀT WIL SEZA OVIR THA LINDA
OVERA LINDA ÀFTE HJARA NÔMUN
OVERA SKELDA
THÀT OR.A SKELDA FOLK
(also: THA ÔRE SÍDE THÉRE SKELDA - the other side of the Skelda)

e) specifically about WR.ALDA
a suggestion that WR means OVER:
[098/07]
WR.ALDA IS THET ALDER.ALDESTA JEFTHA OVER.ALDESTA
‘Wr-alda’ is the most-ancient ('oldest-of-all') or primordial (‘over-oldest’)

"ureldi" in 10th century psalm (copied in 18th century), translated as "oiroudte" (most-old-age) in 1842
~ ~ ~ note: Wralda is only spelled once with I as WR.ALDI.S in the manuscript

2) evidence from context
(only few of many examples):
WRA MERKA TO GA - to go over the markets
THÁ THI STORN WR WÉR - when the storm was over
WR BERG ÀND DÉLON - over mountain and valleys
JOMPADE WR BORD - jumped over board
WRA BERGA ÀND WRN SÉ - over mountains and over sea
VPPA SÉ. ÀND WRA STRÉTE - upon the sea and over the strait
WR.NE SÉ TO FÁRANE - to fare/sail over (a) sea
UT SJANDE WRA WOSTÉNE - looking out over the desert
GVNG WR ALLE KRÉKA.LANDA - went over all Greeklands
ALLERWÉIKES RUN HJU WRA STRÉTE - everywhere she ran over the streets
etc.

17 April 2018

How did it sound? #1: the single V

To reconstruct the sound of the 'Fryas' language, I will now present a study of the vowels based on similar words in Dutch, Frisian, German and English (when applicable), starting with single "V" (double-V or W will come later). I have selected two texts for this, the newest (p. [00a]: "Okke, my son") and one of the oldest (p. [006]: "Our Primal History"), consisting of 512 and 552 letters respectively. When these texts do not have enough examples of the vowel, I will choose other fragments.

p. [00a]: "Okke, my son"
p. [006]: "Our Primal History"


OKKE MIN SVN. THISSA BOKA MOT I MITH LIF ÀND SÉLE WÁRJA. SE VMBIFATTATH THJU SKÉDNISSE FON VS ÉLE FOLK ÁK FON VSA ÉTHLUM. VRLÉDEN JÉR HÀB IK THAM ÛT.ER FLOD HRED TOLIK MITH THI ÀND THINRA MODER. THA HJA WÉRON WET WRDEN. THÉRTHRVCH GVNGON HJA ÀFTERNÉI VRDÀRVA. VMBE HJA NAVT TO VRLÍSA HÀB IK RA VP WRLANDISK PAMPÍER WRSKRÉVEN. SAHWERSA THV SE ERVE. MOT THV SE ÁK WRSKRÍVA. THIN BÀRN ALSA TILTHJU HJA NIMMERTHE WÉI NAVT NE KVMA. SKRÉWEN TO LJUWERT. NÉI ÁTLAND SVNKEN IS. THÀT THRJA THÛSOND.FJVWER HVNDRED ÀND NJUGON ÀND FJVWERTIGOSTE JÉR. THAT IS NÉI KERSTEN RÉKNONG THAT TVELF.HVNDRED.SEX ÀND FIFTIGOSTE JÉR. HIDDE TOBINOMATH OER.A LINDA. WÁK. THAT IS VSA FORMA SKÉDNISE. WR.ALDA THAM ALLÉNA GOD ÀND ÉVG IS. MAKADE T.ANFANG. DANA KÉM TID. TID WROCHTE ALLE THINGA. ÁK JRTHA. JRTHA BÀRDE ALLE GÀRSA KRÛDON ÀND BÔMA. ALLET DJARA KWIK ÀND ALLE.T ÀRGE KWIK. ALHWAT GOD ÀND DJAR IS. BROCHT HJU BY DÉGUM ÀND ALHWAT KWÁD ÀND ÀRG IS. BROCHT HJU THES NACHTIS FORTH. ÀFTER.ET TWILIFTE JOL.FÉRSTE BÀRDE HJU THRJA MANGÉRTA LYDA WÀRTH UT GLÍANDE FINDA WÀRTH UT HÉTA. ÀND FRYA WÀRTH UT WARME STOF. THÁ HJA BLÁT KÉMON SPISDE WR.ALDA HJAM MITH SINA ÁDAMA. TILTHIU THA MÀNNESKA AN HIM SKOLDE BVNDEN WÉSA. RING AS HJA RIP WÉRON KRÉION HJA FRÜCHDA ÀND NOCHTA ANDA DRÁMA. WR.ALDA.S OD TRÀD TO RA BINNA. ÀND NW BÀRDON EK TWILIF SVNA ÀND TWILIF TOGHATERA. EK JOL.TID TWÉN.

Text 1

as vowel "o", "u", "ou":
SVN === (D) zoon, (F) soan, (G) Sohn, (E) son (plural in text 2, below)
VMBE/ VMBI- === (D/F) om/ om-, (G) um/ -um
VS/ VSA === (D) ons/ onze, (F) ús (sing. and plur.)
-THRVCH === (D) door, (F) -troch, (G) -durch, (E) -through
GVNGON* === (F) gongen
VP === (D/F) op, (E) up
THV === (F) do, (G) du, (E) thou
KVMA** === (D) komen, (F) komme, (G) kommen, (E) come
SVNKEN === (D) gezonken, (F) sonken, (E) sunk
FJVWER === (F) fjouwer, (E) four
HVNDRED === honderd, (F) hûndert
[* elsewhere spelled GONGON]
[** varieties with "O": KOM.OF, OMKOMTH, KOMATH, ÀFTERKOMANDA]

in combination VR, now (D/G) "ver-", (F) "fer-":
VRLÉDEN === (D) verleden, (F) ferline
VRDÀRVA === (D) verderven, (F) ferdjerre, (G) verderben
VRLÍSA === (D) verliezen, (F) ferlieze, (G) verlieren
[note: VR can mean 'over' and 'for' and is often equal to OVIR, OVER, WR, OER, OR]

as consonant "v" or "w":
VRDÀRVA === (D) verderve
ERVE === (D) erve, (F) ervje
-SKRÉVEN/ -SKRÍVA* === (D) -schreven/ -schrijve, (F) -skreaun/ -skriuwe
TVELF** === (D) twaalf, (F) tolve, (G) zwölf, (E) twelve
[* also spelled SKRÉWEN, SKRÍWEN/ SKRÍWA, SKRIWA]
[** elsewhere spelled TWELIF, TWÉLIF, TWILIF (most common), TWILLIF, TWILF]

in combination AV:
NAVT === (D) niet, (F) net, (G) nicht, (E) not
(see elsewhere: LAVWA: (D) leeuw, (F) liuw, (G) Löwe, (E) lion)

Text 2:

as vowel:
VSA - as above
BVNDEN === (D) gebonden, (F) bûn, (G) gebunden, (E) bound
SVNA === (D) zonen, (F) soannen, (G) Söhne, (E) sons (singular in text 1, above)

in combination ÉV:
ÉVG === (D) eeuwig, (F) ivich, (D) ewig

[[[ conclusions and audio samples will be follow later]]]

About the new English translation


For two samples of the new translation, see here.

Below a few examples (of many) of the more significant differences between the new translation and the one by Sandbach, which was not based on the original text, but on Ottema's first Dutch translation of it:

page Transliteration Sandbach, 1876 Ott, 2018 (provisional)
S.13 - [006/28] RING AS HJA RIP WÉRON KRÉION HJA FRÜCHDA ÀND NOCHTA ANDA DRÁMA. WR.ALDA.S OD TRÀD TO RA BINNA. As soon as they were full grown they took pleasure and delight in the visions of Wr-alda. Hatred found its way among them. As they matured, they became fruitful and dreamed of pleasure. They received Wralda's ‘od’ into them,*
S. 21 - [012/26] ALLERA MÀNNALIK THÉR [...] MOT IK ANDA BÀRN.TAM ÉNER SLÁFINE FÁRA LÉTA. If any man [...] let him be to you as a vile slave; Anyone who [...] must be paraded with collar and leash like a slave girl.
S. 43 - [029/26] SAHWERSA THÉR SWETHNATA ET SÉMNE KYVA ÀND SANA VR ENZE SÉKA THA VR LÁND If any of our neighbours quarrel and fight about any matter except land, If neighbors should quarrel among each other and enter into a dispute over some cause or piece of land
S. 49 - [033/30] MINA ERVA DRÉG IK OM IN MINA BOSM. [Minerva:] I carry my possessions in my own bosom. [Minerva:] ‘I carry “min” — that is, my — “erva” in my heart.**
S.177 - [129/23] THACH NÉI THAT WI TWA DÉGA FORTH PILATH HÉDE but after two days' slow sailing However, after we had hurried on for two days,








* od’ — probably ‘life force’ or ‘Holy Spirit’ of the Christian tradition; compare German: ‘Gottes Odem’. Related to Middle-Dutch ‘(h)o(e)de’: testicle.
** erva explained in prior sentence as inherited estates.

16 April 2018

Kwartierstaat Ottema - van Heukelom


kinderportret Sara
KWARTIERSTAAT OTTEMA - VAN HEUKELOM

2) Jan Gerhardus Ottema, geb. 1-12-1804 Doetinchem (ged. 30-12 Hervormd), ovl. 19-3-1879 Leeuwarden, doctor in de wijsbegeerte en letteren (overzicht levensloop en publicaties, zie onder), z.v. Nicolaus Ottema en Minke Dirks;
tr. 28-7-1830 Utrecht
3) Sara van Heukelom, geb. 24-2-1805 Leiden (Doopsgezind), ovl. 25-12-1850 Leeuwarden, d.v.  Nicolaas van Heukelom en Sophia van Geuns.
Geen kinderen.


=== ouders


4) Nicolaus (Claas) Ottema, rector van de Latijnse school Doetinchem resp. Brielle (thans Venkelstraat 6), ged. 19-10-1779 Leeuwarden (geref.), ovl. 8-9-1808 Brielle (aan koortsen), z.v. Nanne Ottema en Hendrikje Geerts;
tr. 10-4-1803 Leeuwarden
5) Minke Jans Dirks, geb. 1781 Leeuwarden, ovl. 3-3-1857 Leeuwarden, won. Leeuwarden (1828), rentenierster, won. "onder de Linden binnen Utrecht", d.v. Jan Dirks en Akke Nolledes.
Kinderen:
  1. Jan Gerhardus Ottema, ged. 30-12-1804 Doetinchem (zie 2)
  2. Jan Dirks Ottema, ged. 23-7-1806 Doetinchem.
  3. Hendrik Ottema, geb. 1808, ovl. 14-10-1826 Utrecht.


lakenmerk fa. v. Heukelom
6) Nicolaas van Heukelom, geb. 18-6-1761 Leiden (ged. 8-4-1781 Dg.), ovl. 24-6-1809 Leiden (begr. Katwijk aan Zee), lakenfabrikant (zie alhier blz. 77); tr. (1) 3-6-1786 Utrecht Maria Schoongevel; tr. (2) 15-7-1792 Harlingen Fokje Huidekoper (ovl. 21-11-1796 Leiden), z.v. Jan van Heukelom en Petronella van Putten;
tr. (3) 23-6-1801 Utrecht
7) Sophia van Geuns, geb. 14-12-1771 Groningen, ovl. 12-10-1807 Leiden (wonende te Hogewoerd bij de Rijnstraat, begr. Katwijk aan Zee), d.v. Matthias van Geuns en Sara van Delden.
Kinderen uit (2):
  1. Jan Pieter van Heukelom, geb. 1793, ovl. 10-12-1815 Zoeterwoude (verdronk na val door ijs), student rechten.
  2. Folkert van Heukelom, geb. 11-10-1794 Leiden, ovl. 1848, advocaat, auteur "Dissertatio... de Aerario Romano", ambtenaar bij het Ministerie van Financiën, dichter.
uit (3):
  1. Petronella van Heukelom, geb. 1803, ovl. 31-10-1825 Utrecht
  2. Sara van Heukelom, geb. 21-2-1805 Leiden (zie 3)
  3. Matthias van Heukelom, geb. 7-9-1806 Leiden, ovl. 3-3-1865 Arnhem, wijnkoopman; tr. 6-5-1842 Leeuwarden Agatha de Clercq, geb. 1806 Amsterdam, ovl. 25-5-1887 Arnhem, d.v. Gijsbert de Clercq en Maria de Clercq, wed. Bernardus Brouwer (geen kinderen).
Portret van de kinderen van Nicolaas van Heukelom (1761-1809) door Christiaan van Geelen (1794-1826)


=== grootouders


8) Nanne Ottema, ged. 24-1-1745 Grouw, begr. 20-5-1812 Leeuwarden, commissaris van het Harlinger veer (tussen Harlingen en Amsterdam), belijdenis Leeuwarden 12-12-1766, z.v. Tjitse Ottema en Taetske Nannes;
tr. 1-10-1769 Beetsterzwaag (beide won. Leeuwarden alwaar otr.)
9) Hendrikje Geerts, geb. 1739, ovl. 22-12-1812 Leeuwarden (ouders niet vermeld), koopvrouw.
Kinderen:
  1. Engeltje Ottema, ged. 29-10-1769 Beets, begr. 18-12-1793 Leeuwarden; tr. 13-6-1790 Workum/Leeuwarden Lammert Roelofs.
  2. Tjitse Ottema, geb. 23-6, ged. 10-7-1772 Leeuwarden, ovl. 4-10-1809 Leeuwarden; tr. 17-5-1795 Leeuwarden/Blessum Jetske Appelhof, geb. 1771 Leeuwarden, ovl. 26-12-1833 Leeuwarden (5 kinderen in 1809), d.v. Oege Appelhof en Aafke van der Meulen.
  3. (Taetske Ottema, geb. 6-5, ged. 29-5-1774 Leeuwarden)
  4. Geerardus, ged. 17-7-1777 Leeuwarden.
  5. Claas Ottema, ged. 19-10-1779 Leeuwarden (zie 4)
  6. Taetske Ottema, ged. 12-1-1782 Leeuwarden.


10) Jan Dirks Dirkse, geb. 1741 Leeuwarden, ovl. 5-1-1817 Leeuwarden (ouders niet vermeld);
tr.
11) Akke Nollides/ Nolles, geb. 1746 Gorredijk, belijdenis 6-6-1794 Leeuwarden, ovl. 15-11-1831 Leeuwarden, d.v. Nolle Rinkes en Antje Alberts.
Kinderen:
  1. (Dirk, ged. 15-10-1766 Leeuwarden)
  2. (Nolle, ged. 2-12-1767 Leeuwarden)
  3. Tjamke, ged. 11-7-1770 Leeuwarden
  4. Dirk, ged. 28-9-1772 Leeuwarden
  5. (Antie, ged. 30-4-1775 Leeuwarden)
  6. Nolle Dirks, ged. 26-8-1776 Leeuwarden, won. Leeuwarden (1828)
  7. Antje Dirks, ged. 22-3-1879 Leeuwarden, ovl. 9-3-1837 Leeuwarden; tr. 15-4-1804 Leeuwarden Jan Reerink, geb. 1776 Lochum Duitsland, ovl. 20-2-1852 Leeuwarden.
  8. Minke Jans Dirks, ged. 13-6-1781 Leeuwarden (zie 5).
  9. Pietrik Dirks, ged. 27-9-1783 Leeuwarden, won. Haarlem (1828)
  10. Janke Dirks, ged. 17-5-1786 Leeuwarden, ovl. 1-5-1848 Beverwijk; tr. 31-10-1807 Sneek/Leeuwarden Steven Wybes Bleeker.
  11. Dirkje, ged. 7-9-1788 Leeuwarden


12) Jan (II) van Heukelom, geb. 7-5-1730 Leiden, begr. 22-2-1806 Leiden (won. Hogewoerd), lakenfabrikant, econoom, winnaar gouden medaille prijsvraag  van  het  Utrechts  Provinciaals  Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, z.v. Jan (I) van Heukelom en Geertruij Witkops;
Jan III van Heukelom
tr. 8-6-1757 Leiden
13) Petronella van Putten, geb. 16-11-1728 Leiden, begr. tussen 29-3 en 5-4-1766 Leiden, d.v. Johannes van Putten en Elisabeth Boutkan.
Kinderen:
  1. Jan (III) van Heukelom, ged. 15-4-1758 Leiden, ovl. 4-7-1835 Noordwijkerhout, lakenfabrikant, raadslid Leiden; tr. 15-2-1780 Elisabeth Goverts.
  2. Nicolaas van Heukelom, geb. 18-6-1761 Leiden (zie 6).
  3. Geertruida van Heukelom, geb. 13-7-1764, ovl. 7-1-1816 Amsterdam; tr. Jan van Geuns (zie 14-15)


Matthias van Geuns
14) Matthias van Geuns, hoogleraar geneeskunde Utrecht (doopsgezind, zie ook biografie), geb. 2-9-1735 Groningen, ovl. 9-12-1817 Utrecht, z.v. Steven Janszn van Geuns en Diewertje Roos;
tr. 6-11-1763 Groningen
15) Sara van Delden, geb. 3-10-1739 Groningen, ovl. 18-12-1809 Utrecht, d.v. Jan van Delden en Sophia de Booser.
Kinderen:
  1. Jan van Geuns, geb. 14-9-1764 Groningen, ovl. 25-1-1834 Nijmegen, doopsgezind predikant; tr. 24-7-1793 Leiden Geertruyda van Heukelom (zie 12-13).
  2. Debora Jozina van Geuns, geb. 27-10-1765 Groningen, ovl. 1854, ongehuwd.
  3. Steven Jan van Geuns, geb. 18-10-1767 Groningen, ovl. 16-5-1795 Utrecht, medicus, hoogleraar Utrecht; tr. 27-10-1794 Utrecht Klasina Johanna Jacoba de Vlieger (1768-1798).
  4. Jacob van Geuns, geb. 10-1-1769 Groningen, ovl. 7-12-1832 Amsterdam, medicus/ bankdirecteur; tr. 23-6-1801 's-Graveland Regina Christina Voombergh (1774-1821).
  5. Sophia van Geuns, geb. 14-12-1771 Groningen (zie 7).
  6. Isaak Matthias van Geuns, geb. 11-12-1772 Groningen, ovl. 19-4-1804 Den Haag, jurist, overheidsfunctionaris; tr. 18-1-1803 Den Haag Suzanna Elisabeth Boursse Wils (1780-1813).
  7. Josina Gepke van Geuns, geb. 26-5-1776 Groningen, ovl. 11-5-1852 Utrecht; tr. 16-8-1809 Utrecht medicus Dr. IJsbrand de Kock (1781-1868).


=== overgrootouders


16) Tjitse Rimmerts Ottema, executeur van Idaarderadeel, (hertr. 25-4-17621 Grouw Ynske Hylkama), won. Grouw 1740, ged. 13-12-1711 Balk, ovl. 19-8-1794 Grouw, z.v. Rimmer Eelkes Ottema en Ymk Lieuwes;
tr. 5-5-1743 Grouw (otr. 14-4-1740 Balk)
17) Taetske Nannes, ged. 19-3-1724 Balk (won. Balk 1740), d.v. Nanne Franses en Antje Innes.
Kinderen:
  1. Nanne Ottema, ged. 24-1-1745 Grouw (zie 8)


18) Geert/  Gerardus?
19)


20) Dirk
21)


22) Nolle Rinkes, geb. 1707 Kortezwaag, ovl. 15-12-1749 Gorredijk, tr. (2) 9-2-1749 Gorredijk Trijntje Stephanus (uit Bergum, wed. Claas Minnes, hertr. Freerk Perzijn);
tr. (1)
23) Antje Alberts, ged. 14-9-1710 Gorredijk, ovl. 9-1-1748 Gorredijk.
Kinderen:
  1. Rinke Nollides, geb. 18-7-1739 Gorredijk, ovl. 1-7-1810 Leeuwarden (begr. Gorredijk), molenaar, kalkbrander Ritsumazijl, jeneverstoker, gortmaker, pelmolenaar, koopman, armenvoogd , gemeentebestuurslid Leeuwarden; tr. Grietje Douwes.
  2. Akke Nollides/Nolles, geb. 1746 Gorredijk (zie 11)
uit (2):
(Nolle, ged. 1-3-1750 Gorredijk (vader is overleden), begr. 30-7-1753 Opsterland.)


24) Jan (I) van Heukelom, geb. 2-8-1693, ovl. 18-9-1762 Leiden, z.v. Matthijs van Heukelom (1663-1725) en Barbara;
tr.
25) Geertruij Witkops, geb. 9-4-1700 Zwolle, ovl. 26-2-1774 Leiden, d.v. Johannes Witkops en Elisabeth.
Kinderen:
  1. Matthijs van Heukelom, geb. 11-8-1725 Leiden.
  2. Geertruida van Heukelom, geb. 24-3-1727 Leiden.
  3. Jan (II) van Heukelom, geb. 7-5-1730 Leiden (zie 12).
  4. Hendrik van Heukelom, geb. 7-8-1736 Leiden.
  5. Frans van Heukelom, geb. 17-7-1738 Leiden.


26) Johannes van Putten, geb. 31-8-1698 Rotterdam (Oud Katholiek), ovl. 9-10-1760 Rottrerdam, later doopsgezind, z.v. Jacobus van Putten en Maria Foeck;
tr. 22-9-1723 Rotterdam
27) Elisabeth Boutkan, ovl. 22-10-1782 Leiden, d.v. Nicolaes Jacobus Boutkan en Maria Deckers.
Kinderen:
  1. Nicolaas van Putten, geb. 27-1-1727 Rotterdam
  2. Petronella van Putten, geb. 16-11-1728 Leiden (zie 13)
  3. Jacobus van Putten, geb. 9-4-1731 Rotterdam
  4. Maria van Putten, geb. 16-8-1733 Rotterdam
  5. Elisabeth van Putten


28) Steven Janszn van Geuns, geb. 1-7-1694, Neustadt-Gödens, ovl. 25-3-1757 Groningen lakenhandelaar uit Oost-Friesland, Doopsgezind, z.v. Jan Stevensz. en Gepke Lubberts Cremer;
tr. 12-1-1718 Groningen
29) Diewertje Roos, geb. 9-12-1696, ovl. 4-6-1737 Groningen, d.v. lakenkoopman Thijs Hiddes Roos en Jozina Denijs.
Kinderen:
  1. (Jan, geb en ovl. 1719)
  2. Jozina van Geuns (1720-1808); tr. 1747 Groningen Jacob Bezoet (1722-1779, koopman.
  3. Jan van Geuns (1722-1780), ijzerhandelaar; tr. 1746 Hiltje Bartels Terwisga.
  4. Gepke van Geuns (1724-1766)
  5. (Thijsia/ Sytske 1727-1737)
  6. (Matthias, geb. en ovl. 1730)
  7. Matthias van Geuns, geb. 2-9-1735 Groningen (zie 14).

Jan van Delden
Sophia de Booser
30) Jan van Delden, geb. 24-4-1700 Groningen, ovl. 15-1-1770 Groningen, graanhandelaar, z.v. Izaak Berends van Delden en Sara de Bozer;
tr. 28-5-1729 Groningen (geschilderde portretten in Gron. Museum)
31) Sophia de Booser, geb. 18-3-1704 Groningen, ovl. 30-12-1758 Groningen, d.v. Willem Jans de Booser (zilversmid) en Grietje Torringa.
Kinderen:
  1. Sara van Delden, geb. 3-10-1739 Groningen (zie (15).
  2. Margaretha van Delden, geb. 19-8-1744 Groningen; tr. 23-7-1771 Grijpskerk Melchior Willem de Raadt.


=== bet-overgrootouders


32) Rimmer Eelkes Ottema;
tr.
33) Ymk Lieuwes, ged. 12-3-1685 Balk, d.v. Lieuwe Gerrits en Ymk Reins.
Kinderen:
  1. Tjitse Rimmers Ottema, ged. 13-12-1711 Balk (zie 16).
  2. Lieuwe, ged. 12-8-1716 Balk.
  3. Ysk, ged. 13-3-1718 Balk.
  4. Rein Rimmers Ottema, ged. 29-8-1723 Balk; tr. Gertje Innes.
  5. Jelle, ged. 20-10-1726 Balk.

=========================================================


Overzicht levensloop Dr. J.G. Ottema
1804 geboren
candidaatsexamen Letteren in Groningen
1824 inschrijving universiteit Utrecht
1828 promotie "de Sophoclis Antigone"
1830 gehuwd
1830 - 1834 conrector te Harlingen
1834 aanstelling praeceptor gymnasium Leeuwarden
1850 echtgenote overleden
1855 aanstelling conrector gymnasium Leeuwarden
1870 (24 nov.) aanvang studie v.h. handschrift Over de Linden
1872 eervol ontslag gymnasium Leeuwarden / publicatie Thet Oera Linda Bok
1879 overleden
(N.B. secretaris van het Friesch Genootschap van geschied-, oudheid- en taalkunde: lid sinds 1832, bestuurslid sinds 1843, zie ook hier)

onvolledig overzicht der publicaties:
1844 Iets over de Friesche taal
1845 Verhandeling over den loop der rivieren door het land der Friezen en Batavieren
1845 Redevoering over het ontstaan der Zuiderzee
1850 Kores. Historisch-chronologisch onderzoek naar den tijd der Babylonische ballingschap
1853 Die olde Freesche chronike, met aanteekeningen van E. Epkema
1853 Gesta Frisiorum
1853 De jubelperiode aangewend bij de tijdrekening van de geschiedenis der Israëlieten
1855 Geschiedenis der Joden gedurende het tijdvak der Babyl. ballingschap onder de overheersching der Perzen
1859 Opschrift der grafzuil van Psamtik. Bijdrage tot de chronologie der Babyl. ballingschap
1860 Gelegenheidsrede bij de oprichting van het monument voor Dr. Simon Stijl te Harlingen
1865 De evangeliën van Mattheus en Markus in hunne oorspronkelijke overeenstemming hersteld
1872 Thet Oera Linda Bok
1873 Geschiedkundige aanteekeningen en ophelderingen bij Thet Oera Linda Bok
1874 De Koninklijke Akademie en het Oera Linda Bok
1876 De Deventer courant en het Oera Linda Bok
1876 Thet Oera Linda Bok (2e editie)
1878 Geschiedkundige aanteekeningen... (2e editie)