29 October 2017

HEX, HEXNA and the six-spoke wheel

hexagon and hexagram
Varieties in the Oera Linda-book

noun
HEX (3), plur. HEXNA (4) - witch, sorceress

verb
HÉDE HEXNAD (1), HETH BIHEXNATH (2) - had/has (be)witched, hexed
(infinitive would have been HEXNA)

Note: another word for sorceress or witch in OLB is THJONSTER (used once).

OLB fragments with new translations


1 [034/10]
THÁ GVNGON HJA HJA BIHLVDA ÀND SÉIDON THAT HJU.T FOLK HEXNAD HÉDE.
they started accusing her and said she had bewitched the folk.

Olaus Magnus 1555 depicted witches
causing bad weather and cattle disease
2 [064/28]
MEN MIN.ERVA HETH AL.ET FOLK BIHEXNATH. JES BIHEXNATH FRJUNDA. IVIN AS AL VS FJA THÀT LÀSTEN STURVEN IS.
but Minerva has hexed all the folk - yes hexed, my friends - just like all our cattle that died lately.

3 [065/01]
IK SKOLDE THJU HEX IN HJARA NEST VRBARNE.
I would burn that witch in her nest.

4 [133/10]
ÔLON LÁWATH HJA AN BOSA GÁSTA. HEXNA. KOLLA. ULDERMANKES.
ÀND ELFUN AS JEF HJA FON THA FINNA WEI KÉMEN.

They persistently believe in evil ghosts, witches, sorcerers, forest spirits
and elves as if they stemmed from the Finns.
 

Hexology by J. Ott a.o.
Varieties in modern languages

Hexe behexen/verhexen German
heks(e) hekse Frisian
häxa förhäxa Swedish
heks beheksen Dutch
heks forhekse Danish, Norse


The assumption of some etymologists that the word would be derived from 'hagazussa' (Hague-/ hedge-sister) or 'hagetisse' (lizard), is probably based on medieval folk-etymology. A relation to Greek ἕξ (hex): "six" and the six-spoke wheel makes more sense.
Pennsylvania Dutch Hex Signs


As de zunne schient en het regent, 
dan wörde zegd deur olde meinzen: 
de heksen bint an het pannekoe 
(Dwingeloo)

21 September 2017

WACHTJA - to wait, await

"Waiting for the return of the fishing boats"
by Peter Raadsig (1806-1886)
Modern varieties:
wachten - Dutch
wachtsje - Frisian
to wait - English
warten - German
vente - Danish, Norse
vänta - Swedish
vænta - Icelandic

Some etymological notes:
Dutch, English

Varieties in OLB:
WACHTJA - to wait, await: 1,6,7,8
WACHT - waits (3rd person singular) - 2
HETH WACHT - has/had waited (past perfect) - 5
WACHTON - waited/guarded (3rd person plural) - 4
WACHT HALDEN (to guard) - 3

OLB fragments with new provisional translations:


1 [18/10]
NÉT HJU BY STONDA NÉN RÉD SA MÉI HJU WACHTJA LÉTA SJVGUN DÉGUM
If she does not yet know the answer to his question, she may let him wait seven days

2 [18/28]
TWÉDE SÁ WACHT MÀN JETA EN FVL JÉR
If two-thirds are against her, the case is delayed [lit.: one waits] a whole year

3 [82/19]
THRVCHDAM THA WÉRE NAVT NÉN GODE WACHT HALDEN NÉDEN KÉMON ALLE OM
for the guards had not been prepared [lit.: had not guarded well] and they all fell in action

4 [86/5]
THAM VPPA SKÉPUN WACHTON SKÁTON ÁK NÉI VS THÁ
Those guarding the ships tried to fire back

5 [120/30]
THA ALEXANDRE THAT FORNOM HETH.ER WACHT ALONT ER BÉTER WÉRE
When Alexander heard that, he waited [lit.: has/had waited] till he got better

6 [126/11]
THJU MODER NE THVRADE HJRA JOI NAVT WACHTJA
The mother didn't dare await the return of her 'joy'

7 [126/18]
THRVCHDAM HJU HJRA MAN NAVT WACHTJA THURADE
As she dared not wait for her husband's return

8 [155/19] (not proofread yet)
MEN SIN TÁT BÉD.IM HI SKOLDE JET WACHTJA
but his father urged him to wait a little

23 August 2017

Name List of Persons, Peoples and Places

reading girl in traditional dress by
Nicolaas van der Waay (1855-1936)
Just like the previously posted list of key terms, this name list will grow and evolve in time until it is published together with the coming new English translation of the Oera Linda-book.

Some names will be translated, fully or partly, while others will remain as they are in the original text. Where needed, this list will provide information that explains the choices I made in the translation of the names. It may also be used as an index, as I will add page, line or chapter numbers, where relevant.

A better introduction to this list will be written later and it will be edited. There will be some overlap with the list of key terms.

~ ~ ~

Adela ~ Á.DEL.A, ÀDELA (add other spellings)
[1-5], ...
Apol ~ ÁPOL
[1/20, 5/10], ...
Atland ~ ÁTLAND (add other spellings)
Literally "Old-land", the 'sinking' of which is used as the beginning of the year-numbering system used in the manuscript.
Fryas ~ FRYAS
Free people (as they considered themselves to be) or Children of Frya. See list of key terms.
Hidde Oera Linda ~ HIDDE (TOBINOMATH) OER.A LINDA
[a/22] Copyist of the manuscript in 1256 CE. "Tobinomath" means "surnamed" (to-by-named).
Liko Ovira Linda ~ LIKO (TONÔMATH) OVIRA.LINDA
[b/25] Added letter of instruction to the inheritors of the manuscript in 803 CE. "Tonômath" means "surnamed" (to-named).
Liudwerd/ Liuwert ~ LJUD.WERD/ LJUWERT
[a/16, b/23] Spellings of 803 and 1256 CE respectively of what currently seems to be Ljouwert or Leeuwarden, the capital of the Dutch province Friesland.
Oera Linda/ Ovira Linda ~ OER.A LINDA/ OVIRA.LINDA
Family name, see Hidde, Liko, and ...
Okke ~ OKKE
[a/1] Son of Hidde Oera Linda.


Ovira Linda, see Oera Linda
Weser ~ WRSARA
[1/5, 29]

~ ~ ~

Much, much more to be added. Please come back later.
Note added Sept. 23.: I will do this differently, in a database file first.

28 July 2017

Word List of Key Terms

Orphan girls with books (1900-1930) by Nicolaas van der Waay

The first draft of the new English translation is now ready. Below I will create a list of key words and names, some of which will be left (almost or in most cases) unchanged, others are interpretations of the original word that need some extra explanation. A list of personal, tribal and geographical names will also be made.

This glossary will grow and evolve in time, until it is published in the coming book. It will also be put in alphabetical order.

Listed first is the word, name or term as it will appear in the translation, then the most common transliteration and eventual spelling varieties.


Frya ~ FRYA (sometimes FRÍA or FRIA)
Name of the (possibly in part) historic, and/or (at least in part) mythic primal Mother of the people that called themselves Fryas, Frya's Folk or Frya's Children (sometimes: Frya's Sons). Although in the original text FRYAS (with -S) is also used for singular (an individual of the tribe), I will also translate this as Frya for clarity. In those cases it is always clear that it does not refer to the primal Mother. The meaning of the adjective fry(a) is "free". As a noun it means "free one" (as opposed to slave).
Key fragments: [6/12-32], [9/18 - 14/7].

Fryas ~ (see: Frya)
Members of the people that considered themselves to be Children of Frya or free ones. Their homeland was Fryasland, but they could also be living in colonies elsewhere. (... will add more)

Wralda ~ WR.ALDA (less frequently WRALDA and once VR.ALDA)
Literal meaning "over-old one" or "most-ancient one". Some people would interpret this as God, others as Logos. The various texts sometimes contradict each other as to how Wralda is to be interpreted. It is also remarkable that the primal doctrines about it were not included in the initial Book of Adela-Followers, contrary to Adela's instructions. This might indicate that the 'theology' had become controversial in Adela's time. Sometimes the word means "world", its modern cognate. Often the word GÁST is added, which can be interpreted both as "Spirit" or "Ghost" (the latter being my choice in the translation): Wralda's Ghost.
Key fragments: [6/12-32], [11/18 - 12/12], [45/03-12], [98/03 - 103/23].

Yol ~ JOL
The sacred six-spoke wheel or Wheel of Time, which was a symbol of Wralda and the basis for the letters and numbers. In combinations with -FÉRSTE, -TID and -DÉI it refers to the annual celebration, now Yule (Dutch/ German: Joel/ Jul). I have spelled it with Y instead of J to better represent the probable pronunciation and make the connection to Yule more obvious. (Also see: Carrier.)
Key fragments: [6/12-19], [45/1 - 47/2], [83/22 - 84/24].

Burg ~ BURCH (sometimes BURGH), plural BURGUM or BURGA
This can also be read as burgh or borough. Some people would rather translate it as "citadel". It is used in combinations, for example with -FÁM (maiden), -WAL (wall or rampart), -WÉPNE (weapons) and in names of specific cities or citadels (Fryasburg, Treasureburg, etc.). Most burgs would have had a tower, on the walls of which laws and histories were written.
Key fragments: [5/8-28], [15/1 - 19/6], [106/10 - 108/32].

Tex ~ TEX
This mostly refers to Frya's Tex (set of primal laws), after which the often mentioned Texland appears to have been named, but the mythic Finda is also said to have left one.
Key fragment: [10/31 - 14/7], [45/13-14].

Steersmen/ -man ~ STJURAR, STJÛRAR (sometimes STJURA)
This can also be read as "navigators", although the term seems to also have been used for sailors in general. In the original text there is no difference between plural and singular (the latter occurring only twice). The Steersmen seem to have been a somewhat separate people, as they are often said to use different words or pronunciations.
Key fragment: [27/12 - 27/9].

Folk ~ FOLK, plural FOLKAR, FOLKA, FOLKUM, FOLKRA or FOLKRUM
Can also be read as Volk, people, nation or race. Often: Frya's Folk (whites), Finda's Folk (yellow or mongrel) and Lyda's Folk (blacks). Also used in combination with Mother: Folk Mother.

Earth ~ JRTHA
This word is often personified (female) and sometimes refers to ore or soil. If Earth in the sense of our planet is meant, the word may have rather associated with the land only, that is: not including seas and oceans. This is not clear, however.
Key fragments: [6/12-32], [49/11 - 50/13], [115/11 - 116/32], [189/15-26].

Sacred Fire ~ FODDIK (plur. -A or -UM)
Could also be read as Flame, Light or Lamp. It had to be kept burning and new ones had to be lit from the original one at Texland. A probable modern cognate is "photo", which originally means "light".
Key fragments: [13/30 - 14/7], [15/2-18], [75/18-23].

Carrier ~ KRODER (once: KRODAR)
Personification of time: the Carrier and his Yol (or: Wheel of Time). The modern Dutch word is "kruier"; someone who operates a wheelbarrow. Related are Krodo from the Saxon Chronicle and Chronos from Greek mythology. (See also: Yol.)
Key fragments: [14/10-11], [35/32 - 36/1], [45/9-12], [71/26-28].

Mother ~ MODER (sometimes MODAR; plur. -A or -UM)
This word is mostly used as an honorary title for the elected Folk Mother or 'mother of the people', but in some cases also for a regular mother. The Mother was chosen from the various Burg Maidens and resided at Texland in Fryasburg. The election of Mothers sometimes caused much discord as the aspiring Burg Maidens could be overly ambitious and jealous. (Also see: Burg, Maiden.)
Key fragments: [13/31 - 14/2], [15/1 - 19/7], [23/7 - 24/4], [82/19 - 85/7], [87/24 - 88/17], [91/14 - 92/29], [117/20 - 118/22], [191/17-27].

Maiden ~ FÁM (plur. FÁMNA; diminutive FÁMKE; sometimes FAM-)
Most burgs had one leading Burg Maiden (BURCH.FÁM, sometimes also called Mother or simply Maiden) and up to 21 regular Maidens (FÁMNA), as well as 7 young apprentices or students (LÉR.FAMKES or SPILLE MANGÉRTA). The Maidens role was to teach, give advice, take care of the ill, and watch over the Sacred Fire. (Also see: Burg, Mother, Sacred Fire.)
Key fragments: [15/8 - 19/6], [62/8 - 63/1], [103/27 - 106/9], [108/7-32], [151/31 - 153/13].

Reeve ~ GRÉVETMAN (sometimes GRÉVA or GRÉVE)
Sometimes GRÉVETMAN and GRÉVA are used as different titles, but sometimes the latter is used to mean the first. Also: VRSTE GRÉVE (supreme reeve). Can also be read as count or earl; the chosen male head of a region or district. Note: GRÉVA sometimes has a different meaning: plural noun "graves" or adjective "grey" (i.e. old man or veteran).
Key fragments: [5/8-28], [20/24], [23/10-17], [27/1], [87/20], [143/8], [144/19], [150/14-16].

King ~ KÉNING, KÀNING or KENING (only twice: KING; plural -GAR)
For the Fryas this was a chosen leader of an army or fleet. In foreign cultures it more had the meaning similar to that of our middle ages (inherited and ruling over the people). Some kings that are explicitly named: Wodin, Ûlysus, Wichhirte, Alexandre, Áskar.
Used in combinations SÉ-, WÉT-, WIT- (Sea-); KÉNINGK.RIK (noun: kingdom), KÉNINGLIK(-E/-A) (adjective: royal). Sometimes synonymous with Army Leader (HÉR.MAN).
Key fragments: [21/15 - 25/2], [152/8-25], [191/1-16].

Sea King ~ (see: King)
Chosen leader of a fleet. Some of the Sea Kings: Tünis, Jon, Friso.
Key fragments: [5/8-28], [27/12 - 29/14], [45/17].

Sea Warriors ~ SÉ.KÀMPAR (also without ".")
This word can also be read as "marines". It is sometimes used in a more neutral, less warlike context, sometimes for what we would call "pirates". Three fragments suggest that a group of Danish sea people took this word as their tribal name (related to Sicambri?).
Key fragments: [15/27-30], [48/27-29], [53/21-30], [131/20-23], [202/6-7].

Army Leader ~ HÉR.MAN, HYR.MAN, HÉRTOGA
Sometimes synonymous to King and may also sometimes have meant local ruler. German "Heer" still means army, as well as Dutch "heir" (obsolete). Modern cognates Du/Ge: hertog/ Herzog mean "duke".
Key fragments: [01/30 - 02/2], [3/9], [5/15-19], [16/8-12], [21/15 - 22/7], [53/25], [131/14], [209/27].

Ancestors ~ ÉTHLA, ÉTHLUM, ÉTHLON, ÉTHELA, ÉTHELUN
Sometimes this word is used for 'nobility' (Du/Ge: edelen/ Edlen). Related "odal" or "othala" rune.
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [203/17-18].

Descendants ~ÀFTERKVMAND(-A/-E) (Once: -KOM-)
Literally: 'aftercoming'. Also verb: OFSTAMED (descended); noun: KOM.OF (descent); ERVNÔMA (heirs).
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [192/14-31]

Princes ~ FORSTA, sometimes FORSTUM (only 4 times singular: FORST)
Modern cognates Du/Ge: vorst/ Fürst. Literal meaning is first or foremost, which is similar to the original meaning of prince or principal (from Latin primus: first).
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

Priests ~ PRESTERA, sometimes PRESTERUM or PRESTRUM
Often used in combination with FORSTA, mostly in a very negative sense. Singular PRESTER is only used twice and female PRESTERESSE once. HÁVED.PRESTER: 'head'- or high priest.
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/]

Rede ~ RÉD (noun, derived from verb RÉDA)
Can also be read as the more common but Latin-based 'advice' or 'counsel'. However, the archaic, more native 'rede' deserves a revival. Du/Ge: raad/ Rat. The verb 'read' is a modern cognate. (see here)
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].


Allies ~ ÁTHA, ÁTHUM (ÁTHSKIP: alliance)
Singular ÁTHE does not always translate well as ally, but rather as comrade. Name Athena/ Athens would be derived from this word.
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

Mercenaries ~ SALT.ATH(-A/-UM)
Literally 'salt-allies'; allies paid with salt, in contrast to voluntary allies or WÉRAR: defenders of their own land or people. Modern cognate soldier (Du/Ge: soldaat/ Soldat) does not fit well as translation, since this could also be interpreted as defender. (Also see: Allies, Defenders.)
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

Defenders ~ WÉRAR (from much used verb WÉRA: to defend)
Also used in combination BURCH- and LAND-. This was something honorable, in contrast to SALT.ÁTHA (see: Mercenaries).
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

Slaves ~ SLÁVONA 29, SLÁFONA 1, SLÁFONUM 2, SLÁVONENA 1 (singular SLÁF 2, SLÁV 1; female SLÁFINE 1; verb SLÁVA 1)
Often used in combination with FOLK or FOLKA(R): slave people(s). Sometimes this word literally means 'slaves', but often it refers to people who were not 'Fryas', in other words unfree people. It is not likely that Slavic peoples were meant, but it is possible that this the name of this race was derived from this word and habit of referring to them. This would be opposite of the ruling notion; that the word 'slave' is derived from the name of these people.
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [140/25-26].

RJUCHTA, ÉWA, SETMA, DOMAR
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

MÁGÍ

... (not ready yet ~ I am having a summer holiday break)

24 July 2017

STÁKBÉJA ~ stalkberries not stingberries

Still Life with Flowers and Fruits (fragment) by Eelke Jelles Eelkema, 1825, with raspberries or Stengelbeere (stalkberries)

Ottema translated STÁKBÉJA as steekbessen/ doornbessen (gooseberries, lit. stingberries/ thornberries). Sandbach translated that as holly berries/ gooseberries (copied by Raubenheimer). All subsequent translators stuck to Ottema's interpretation of sting- or gooseberries (full fragment and various translations below):
- Wirth: Stechbeeren
- Overwijn, De Heer: kruisbessen
- Jensma: steekbessen
- Menkens: Stachelbeeren
- Lien: stikkelsbær

Since STÁK is used elsewhere once for stake/ stalk/ stock (*), and words related to Dutch 'steken' (stick/ sting/ stab/ poke) are always spelled differently (**), I suggest that a better translation of STÁKBÉJA would be stalkberries. A German-dialect version of this word - Stengelbeere - is known to be used for raspberries:


source: http://www.woerterbuchnetz.de/DWB?lemma=stengelbeere

(*) [066/08]
DAHWILE AL HJRA LJUDA STÁK ÀND STIF FON SKRIK STANDON
Terwijl al hare lieden stokstijf van schrik stonden
While all her people stood transfixed [stock and stiff; stock-still] with horror

(**) VPSTÉKA, VPSTÉKEN, STÉKA, STÉKATH, VPSTOKEN, STÀK, FARUTSTÀK, ANSTEKTH, STEK, STEKER, UTSTEKKA - all varieties of Dutch 'steken' (sting, poke, stab, stick, etc.)



# # # Fragment and various translations # # #
 


[168/04]
HÍR INNA WALDA HÀV IK KRUP ÀND STÁK.BÉJA SJAN.
BY VS SIND BÉI.BÁMA ALS JOW LINDA.BÁMA.
HWÉR FON THA BÉJA FÜL SWÉTER
ÀND THRÉ WÁRA GRÁTER AS STÁKBÉJA SIND.

Ott 2017 (provisional, not proofread yet):

In the woods here I have seen creep- and stalkberries*.
In our homeland there are berry trees like your linden trees,
the fruits of which are much sweeter
and three times as big as stalkberries.

(*Dutch: staak- or stengelbessen; 'Stengelbeere' is a German dialect word for raspberries)

Ottema 1872 Dutch:

Hier in de wouden heb ik kruip- en steekbessen gezien.
Bij ons zijn bessenboomen zoo groot als uwe lindeboomen,
waarvan de bessen veel zoeter
en driewerf grooter zijn als uwe doornbessen zijn.


Sandbach 1876 English:

I have found in the woods here bramble and holly berries.
In my country we have trees bearing berries, as large as your lime-trees,
the berries of which are much sweeter
and three times as large as your gooseberries.


Wirth 1933 German:

Hier in die Wäldern habe ich Kriech- und Stechbeeren gesehen.
Bei uns sind Beerenbäume wie ihre Lindenbäume,
wovon die Beeren viel süsser
und drei mal grösser als Stechbeeren sind.


Overwijn 1951 Dutch:

Hier in de wouden heb ik bos- en kruisbessen gezien.
Bij ons zijn bessenbomen zo groot als uw lindebomen,
waarvan de bessen veel zoeter
en driemaal zo groot als kruisbessen zijn.


Jensma 2006 Dutch:

Hier in de wouden heb ik kruip- en steekbessen gezien.
Bij ons zijn bessenbomen als uw lindebomen,
waarvan de bessen veel zoeter
en drie keer groter dan steekbessen* zijn.
(*"klaarblijkelijk kruisbessen")


De Heer 2008 Dutch:
Hier in de wouden heb ik bos en kruisbessen gezien.
Bij ons zijn bes-bomen als uw lindebomen,
waarvan de bessen veel zoeter
en driemaal groter als kruisbessen zijn.


Raubenheimer 2011 English:

I have seen bramble and holly berries in the woods here.
In our country there are berry trees like your lime-trees,
the berries of which are much sweeter than
and three times as big as your gooseberries.


Menkens 2013 German:

Hier in den Wäldern habe ich Kriech- und Stachelbeeren gesehen.
Bei uns gibt es Beerenbäume (so groß) wie Eure Lindenbäume,
von denen die Beeren viel süßer
und dreimal größer als Stachelbeeren sind.


Lien 2013 Norse:I skogene her har jeg sett krype- [blåbringebær] og stikkelsbær*.
Hos oss er bærtrær som deres lindetrær,
hvorpå bærene er mye søtere
og tre ganger større enn stikkelsbær.

(*kruisbes)

other example of 'creeping berries' from: "Historische beschryving der reizen..." (1750) by Pieter de Hond

18 July 2017

Yes-us from Kashmir, 600 BCE

[139/08] in the end they said that Yes-us was a god

The Oera Linda-book (first published in Dutch translation by Dr. J.G. Ottema in 1872) contains a narrative about a Jes-us or Yes-us from Kashmir:
  • who would have lived ca. 600 BCE, 
  • who would also have been known as Buda, Kris-en and Fo
  • who would have been a wise teacher that was deified after his death.

The narrative suggests that Yes-us was one of the names of Buddha, which raises the question if Jesus of Nazareth (whether historic of mythic) might have been named after this earlier Yes-us.
Note: Although I have transliterated the name as JES.US, I prefer spelling in English as Yes-us, since the J in Dutch and German is pronounced as English Y, not as J (dj). Compare English: "Yule" vs. Dutch/ German: "Jul"/ "Joel". Ottema translated the name as Jessos, which was copied in the English translation by Sandbach (1876).

If Yes-us (whatever spelling) was indeed one of many names of Buddha (which is not impossible), one can imagine why both Christian and Buddhist authorities would have hidden or destroyed sources about it.

~ ~ ~ 

As promised to another researcher, I will present my preliminary (not yet proofread by my editors!) new translation of the concerning fragment below, once in full and once with line or verse numbers, then the transliteration which is numbered likewise for comparison, and finally the pages of the manuscript with added line numbers.

First, some quoted fragments by way of introduction (my italics).

Ottema (1804-1879)
Dr. J.G. Ottema (1873) "Geschiedkundige Aanteekeningen en Ophelderingen bij Thet Oera Linda Bok" (p.28, my provisional translation from Dutch):
Jes.us, Jessos, Jess
With the expulsion of Buddhism from Kashmir and its dispersion to the east, the name Jess seems to have disappeared and been replaced in the legend by Gautama and Sakyamuni. The influence of Buddha's teaching, however, seems to have spread westwards too, with the Fire-worshippers of Aria, the Persians and those in Azerbaijan, the latter having kept the memory of Buddha's first name in their name Yezidis. Likewise with the Slavic peoples, among which the Old-Polish mythology uses the name Jess for the supreme godhead as well as for the greatest of planets, Jupiter.
Fo is the common Chinese name for Buddha.
Krisen: In India, Buddha is regarded to be the ninth Avatar (incarnation) of Vishnu and a continuation of the Avatar of Krishna, which would make Buddha the reborn Krishna.

Volney (1757-1820)
C. F. Volney (1791, translated 1802 from French) "The Ruines; Or, Meditation on the Revolutions of Empires and the Law of Nature"
(...) so that the existence of Jesus is no better proved than that of Osiris and Hercules, or that of Fot or Beddou, with whom (...) the Chinese continually confound him, for they never call Jesus by any other name than Fot.
(...)
Christianity, or the Allegorical Worship of the Sun, under the cabalistical names of Chrish-en, or Christ, and Ye-sus or Jesus.
(...)
"Finally, these traditions went so far as to mention even his astrological and mythological names, and inform us that he was called sometimes Chris, that is to say, preserver, and from that, ye Indians, you have made your god Chrish-en or Chrish-na; and, ye Greek and Western Christians, your Chris-tos, son of Mary, is the same; sometimes he is called Yes, by the union of three letters, which by their numerical value form the number 608, one of the solar periods. And this, Europeans, is the name which, with the Latin termination, is become your Yes-us or Jesus, the ancient and cabalistic name attributed to young Bacchus, the clandestine son (nocturnal) of the Virgin Minerva, who, in the history of his whole life, and even of his death, brings to mind the history of the god of the Christians, that is, of the star of day, of which they are each of them the emblems."

Strabo book 15, chapter 1, section 59, with translation Hamilton & Falconer, 1903 (source):
῎αλλην δὲ διαίρεσιν ποιεῖται περὶ τῶν φιλοσόφων, δύο γένη φάσκων, ὧν τοὺς μὲν Βραχμᾶνας καλεῖ τοὺς δὲ Γαρμᾶνας.
Megasthenes divides the philosophers again into two kinds, the Brachmanes and the Garmanes*. (*translators' note: Brahmins and Sarmanes)


~ ~ ~

Provisional new translation of page [136/08] to [141/21] (not proofread by my editors yet!). Page numbers of original between [x], pages numbers of Sandbach translation between (x). For version with line or verse numbers, see below.

It was sixteen hundred years ago that Atland had sunk (ca. 600 BCE), when something happened that no one had expected.

In the heart of Finda's Land, in the mountains, lies a plain called Kasamir, which means 'rare'. A child was born there; his mother was the daughter of a king, and his father was a high priest. To avoid shame, they had to deny their own blood. He was thus taken out of town, to poor people. Meanwhile, it was not concealed to him. Therefore he did anything to find and collect wisdom. His comprehension was so great, that he understood all he saw and heard. The folk regarded him with respect, and the priests got scared of his questions. When he became of age, he went to his parents. They had to hear hard words. To get rid of him, they gave him plenty of valuable stones, but they still dared not openly acknowledge him [137] as their own blood.

Overwhelmed by sadness over the false shame of his parents, he went wandering about. On his travels, he met a Fryan Steersman who had been enslaved; from him he learned about our morals and traditions. He bought his freedom and they remained friends till death. Everywhere he went, he taught the people that they should not accept rich men or priests, and that they must take heed against false shame, which inevitably harms love. Earth, he said, grants her gifts to those who scratch her skin; he must dig, plough and sow in it, who wishes to shear of it. However, he said, no one has to do this for another, unless it happens at common will or with love.

He taught that no one should grub in her bowels for gold, silver or precious stones, to which envy sticks and from which love flees. To adorn your girls and women, he said, her rivers deliver enough. No one, he said, is able to give everyone equal wealth and happiness, but it is everyone's duty to make the people as equally wealthy [138] and to give them as much contentment as possible. No wisdom, he said, should be undervalued, but equal sharing is the greatest wisdom that time can teach us, because it wards off irritation from Earth, and it feeds love. His first name was Yes-us, but the priests who severely hated him, called him Fo, that is, fault. The folk called him Kris-en, that is, herdsman, and his Fryan friend called him Buda, that is, pouch, because he had in his head a treasure of wisdom, and in his heart a treasure of love.

In the end he had to escape the revenge of the priests, but everywhere he arrived his teaching had preceded him, and everywhere he went his enemies followed him like his shadow. When Yes-us had travelled like this for twelve years, he died, but his friends maintained his teaching, and proclaimed where it found ears. So, what do you think the priests did? That I must tell you, and you must give it serious consideration. Moreover, you must be vigilant against their trade and tricks, with all forces that Wralda has provided you.

While Yes-us' teaching fared over Earth, the false priests went to the land of his birth to announce his death. They said they [139] were of his friends and pretended great mourning, rending their clothes to rags and shaving their heads. They went to live in mountain caves, but they also stored their treasures and made images of Yes-us in there. They gave these images to the unsuspecting people, and in the end they said that Yes-us was a god; that he himself had revealed so to them, and that all who would believe in him and his teaching would enter his kingdom hereafter, where there is joy and pleasures.

Because they knew that Yes-us had been in arms against the rich, they preached everywhere that poverty and simplicity are the gateway into his kingdom; that those who have suffered the most here on Earth, would hereafter enjoy the greatest pleasures. While they knew that Yes-us had taught that one should control and direct his passions, they preached that one should kill all his passions, and that the perfection of mankind consisted in becoming as emotionless as cold stone. In order to pretend that they did so themselves, they feigned [140] poverty in the streets, and to prove furthermore that they had killed all their passions, they took no wives. However, when a daughter had transgressed, she was quickly forgiven.The weak, they said, must be helped, and in order to save his own soul, one must offer the temple generously. In this manner, they had wife and children without household, and they grew rich without working, but the folk grew much poorer and more miserable than before.

This religion, which requires the priests to possess no other skills than eloquence, hypocrisy and foul play, expands from east to west, and will also reach our lands. When the priests will imagine, however, that they have entirely extinguished the light of Frya and of Yes-us' teaching, people will rise in all regions, who have silently treasured truth among each other, hiding it from the priests. They will be of royal blood, of priestly blood, of slaves' blood and of Frya's blood. They will bring their sacred fires and the Light in the open, so that everyone may see Truth. They will condemn the deeds of the priests and princes. [141] The princes who love truth and justice will separate themselves from the priests. Blood will flow, but from it the folk will gather new strength.

Finda's folk will apply its inventiveness for the common good, Lyda's folk its strength, and we our wisdom. Then the false priests will be erased from Earth. Wralda's spirit will be honoured and invoked everywhere and in every way. Only the laws that Wralda initially laid in our souls will be adhered to. There will be no other masters, princes or bosses than those who were elected by common will. Then Frya will rejoice and Earth will only grant her gifts to the working people. All this will begin four thousand years after Atland sank, and one thousand years later, there will no longer be priests nor domination on Earth.

~ ~ ~

Again the provisional new translation (not proofread by my editors yet!), with line numbers, for comparison with original text; see transliteration below:
[136]
08 It was sixteen hundred years ago that Atland had sunk (ca. 600 BCE),
09 when something happened that no one had expected.
11 In the heart of Finda's Land, in the mountains, lies a plain
12 called Kasamir, which means 'rare'.
14 A child was born there;
-- his mother was the daughter of a king, and his father was a high priest.
16 To avoid shame, they had to deny their own blood.
18 He was thus taken out of town, to poor people.
20 Meanwhile, it was not concealed to him.
21 Therefore he did anything to find and collect wisdom.
23 His comprehension was so great, that he understood all he saw and heard.
25 The folk regarded him with respect,
26 and the priests got scared of his questions.
27 When he became of age, he went to his parents.
28 They had to hear hard words.
29 To get rid of him, they gave him plenty of valuable stones,
31 but they still dared not openly acknowledge him
[137]
-- as their own blood.
01 Overwhelmed by sadness over the false shame of his parents, he went wandering about.
03 On his travels, he met a Fryan Steersman who had been enslaved;
05 from him he learned about our morals and traditions.
06 He bought his freedom and they remained friends till death.
08 Everywhere he went, he taught the people
09 that they should not accept rich men or priests,
11 and that they must take heed against false shame,
12 which inevitably harms love.
13 Earth, he said, grants her gifts to those who scratch her skin;
15 he must dig, plough
17 and sow in it, who wishes to shear of it.
18 However, he said, no one has to do this for another,
20 unless it happens at common will or with love.
21 He taught that no one should grub in her bowels
23 for gold, silver or precious stones,
24 to which envy sticks and from which love flees.
26 To adorn your girls and women, he said,
27 her rivers deliver enough.
28 No one, he said, is able to give everyone equal wealth and happiness,
30 but it is everyone's duty
31 to make the people as equally wealthy
[138]
01 and to give them as much contentment as possible.
02 No wisdom, he said, should be undervalued,
03 but equal sharing is the greatest wisdom that time can teach us,
05 because it wards off irritation from Earth, and it feeds love.
07 His first name was Yes-us,
08 but the priests who severely hated him, called him Fo, that is, fault.
10 The folk called him Kris-en, that is, herdsman,
11 and his Fryan friend called him Buda, that is, pouch,
12 because he had in his head a treasure of wisdom,
14 and in his heart a treasure of love.
15 In the end he had to escape the revenge of the priests,
16 but everywhere he arrived his teaching had preceded him,
18 and everywhere he went his enemies followed him like his shadow.
20 When Yes-us had travelled like this for twelve years, he died,
22 but his friends maintained his teaching, and proclaimed where it found ears.
24 So, what do you think the priests did?
25 That I must tell you, and you must give it serious consideration.
26 Moreover, you must be vigilant against their trade and tricks,
28 with all forces that Wralda has provided you.

29 While Yes-us' teaching fared over Earth,
30 the false priests went to the land of his birth to announce his death.
32 They said they
[139]
-- were of his friends
01 and pretended great mourning,
02 rending their clothes to rags and shaving their heads.
04 They went to live in mountain caves,
05 but they also stored their treasures
06 and made images of Yes-us in there.
07 They gave these images to the unsuspecting people,
08 and in the end they said that Yes-us was a god;
10 that he himself had revealed so to them,
11 and that all who would believe in him and his teaching
13 would enter his kingdom hereafter,
14 where there is joy and pleasures.
15 Because they knew that Yes-us had been in arms against the rich,
16 they preached everywhere that poverty and simplicity
18 are the gateway into his kingdom;
20 that those who have suffered the most here on Earth,
21 would hereafter enjoy the greatest pleasures.
22 While they knew that Yes-us had taught
24 that one should control and direct his passions,
25 they preached that one should kill all his passions,
27 and that the perfection of mankind consisted
29 in becoming as emotionless as cold stone.
30 In order to pretend
31 that they did so themselves, they feigned
[140]
-- poverty in the streets,
01 and to prove furthermore that they had killed all their passions,
02 they took no wives.
-- However, when a daughter had transgressed,
05 she was quickly forgiven.
-- The weak, they said, must be helped,
06 and in order to save his own soul, one must offer the temple generously.
08 In this manner, they had wife and children without household,
10 and they grew rich without working,
11 but the folk grew much poorer and more miserable than before.
13 This religion, which requires the priests to possess no other skills
14 than eloquence, hypocrisy and foul play,
16 expands from east to west,
17 and will also reach our lands.
18 When the priests will imagine, however,
19 that they have entirely extinguished the light of Frya and of Yes-us' teaching,
21 people will rise in all regions,
22 who have silently treasured truth among each other,
24 hiding it from the priests.
25 They will be of royal blood, of priestly blood,
26 of slaves' blood and of Frya's blood.
28 They will bring their sacred fires and the Light in the open,
29 so that everyone may see Truth.
31 They will condemn the deeds of the priests and princes.
[141]
01 The princes who love truth and justice
02 will separate themselves from the priests.
03 Blood will flow, but from it the folk will gather new strength.
04 Finda's folk will apply its inventiveness for the common good,
06 Lyda's folk its strength, and we our wisdom.
07 Then the false priests will be erased from Earth.
09 Wralda's spirit will be honoured and invoked everywhere and in every way.
11 Only the laws that Wralda initially laid in our souls will be adhered to.
13 There will be no other masters, princes or bosses
15 than those who were elected by common will.
16 Then Frya will rejoice
17 and Earth will only grant her gifts to the working people.
19 All this will begin four thousand years after Atland sank,
21 and one thousand years later, there will no longer be priests nor domination on Earth.
~ ~ ~

Transliteration with numbers that indicate on what line the verse starts. For full transliteration and introduction to it, see PDF:







~ ~ ~

Original manuscript pages with line numbers. For full manuscript and introduction to it, see PDF:







16 July 2017

Tribes west of Punjab or Indus River ~ maps

Note: in the Oera Linda-book Pang-ab does not refer to what is now the Punjab region, but to the river that is now Indus River.


[164/19]
BI WESTA PANG.AB THÉR SIND THA ÍRA JEFTHA WRANGA.
THA GEDROSTNE JEFTHA BRITNE.
AND THA ORJETTEN JEFTHA VRJETNE.


Ott 2017 (provisional, not proofread yet!):
To the west of the Pang-ab the 'Íra' or wrathful live,
as well as the 'Gedrostne' or runaways,
and the 'Oryetten' or forgotten.



Ottema 1872 Dutch:
Bewesten Pangab zijn de Yren (Iraniers) of wrangen (Drangianen),
de Gedrosten (Gedrosiers) of weggeloopenen,
en de Urgetten* of vergetenen.

(*corrected: Orgetten (Oriten))

Sandbach 1876 English:
To the west of the Punjab are the Yren (Iraniers), or morose (Drangianen),
the Gedrosten (Gedrosiers), or runaways,
and the Urgetten*, or forgotten.

(*Sandbach did not take Ottema's correction into account)

Wirth 1933 German:
Im westen des Pangabs sind die Ira oder 'Wranga' (sauren; Drangiana?),
die Gedrostne (Gedrosia?) oder Vertriebenen
und die Orjetten oder Vergessenen.


Overwijn 1951 Dutch: 
Ten Westen van Pangab zijn de Yren (Iraniërs) of Wrangen (Drangianen),
de Gedrosiërs (of weggelopenen)
en de Urjetten (Oriten) (of vergetenen).


Jensma 2006 Dutch:
Bewesten Punjab daar zijn de Yren oftewel bozen,
de Gedrossiërs oftewel weggebritten
en de Orjetten oftewel vergetenen.

(Yren - Ariërs/ Gedrosië is een streek ten westen van de Indus/ Oreiten, Indisch volk, woonachtig boven het tegenwoordige Karachi)

De Heer 2008 Dutch:
Ten Westen van Pangab daar zijn de Yren ofwel Wrangen.
De Gedrosiërs ofwel weggelopenen,
en de Orjetten ofwel vergetenen.


Raubenheimer 2011 English: 
To the west of the Pangab are the Ira, or Wranga,
the Gedrostne, or runaways,
and the Orietten, or forgotten.


Menkens 2013 German: 
Beim West-Pangab gibt es die Yren oder Wrangen,
die Gedrosier oder Weggezogenen
und die Huriter oder Vergessenen.


Lien 2013 Norse: 
Vest for Pangab, der er ir(an)erne eller ’de vrange’,
gedroserne eller ’rømlingene’,
og orittene eller ’de glemte’.







A´RIA (: region/ Arians: people) ~ Ἄρια
GEDRO´SIA (:region/ Gedrosii: people) ~ Γεδρωσία
ORITAE (: people) ~ Ὠρεῖται

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