21 January 2017

MORNE ~ morning, tomorrow


Varieties in modern languages:

morning - English
Morgen - German
morgen, ochtend - Dutch, Danish, Norse
morgon - Swedish
morgun - Icelandic
moarn - Frisian
môre, more, oggend - Afrikaans

tomorrow - English
morgen - German, Dutch
i morgen - Danish, Norse
i morgon - Swedish
á morgun - Icelandic
moarn - Frisian
môre, more - Afrikaans

Varieties in the OLB:

MORNE - tomorrow - 6
BY MORNE - by morning, in the morning - 3
THES MORNES - in the morning - 2
MÔRNE.RÁD, MORNERÁD - morning-red, red of dawn - 1,4,5
(OGTIN.S - in the morning - 7)



1 [009/18]
FRYA WAS WIT LIK SNÉI BY.T MÔRNE.RÁD
Frya was white, like snow in the red of dawn ('morning-red')

2 [012/23]
THES MORNES THES MIDDÉIS ÀND THES ÉWENDES
in the morning, in the afternoon ('mid-day') and in the evening

3 [047/24]
BY MORNE PALDON WI OVER ET UTER.ENDE THES ASTER.SÉ
eastward ('in the morning') our boundary went to ('we poled') over the extremity ('outer-end') of the East-Sea

4 [064/08]
MÔRNE.RÁD NE KV NAVT SKÉNER
morning-red could not be more beautiful

5 [084/07]
THÉRNÉI SKIL THET MORNERÁD WITHER ANFANGA TO GLORA
then the red of dawn will start glowing again

6 [153/10]
JUD IS FRISO JOW RÉDJÉVAR. MEN MORNE WIL HI JOW KÀNING WERTHA
Friso is your counsellor, but tomorrow he will be your king

~ ~ ~

7 [206/02]
OGTIN.S KVN MÀN FON THÉRE BURCH ALLÉNA ÉNE GLANDERE HÁPE SJAN
in the morning one could only see a glowing heap of (what was left of) the burg

20 December 2016

ÉWEND or ÉVIND ~ eve, evening

"Vismarkt bij avond" (fish-market in the evening)
by Egbert Lievensz. van der Poel, ca.1650 (crop)
Modern languages:
eve, evening - English
avond - Dutch
Abend - German
aand - Afrikaans
aften - Danish
afton (or: kväll) - Swedish
(kveld - Norse)
(kvöld - Icelandic)
(jûn, joun - Frisian)

Old varieties:
āƀand - Old Saxon
āband - Old High German
āvend, ēvend - Old Frisian
ǣfen - Old English
aptann - Old Norse
afton, aftan, aptan - Old Swedish

From English etymology site:
evening (n.) from Old English æfnung "the coming of evening, sunset, time around sunset," verbal noun from æfnian "become evening, grow toward evening," from æfen "evening" (see eve).
eve (n.) c. 1200, eve "evening," especially the time between sunset and darkness, from Old English æfen (...) Old Saxon aband, Old Frisian ewnd, Dutch avond, Old High German aband, German Abend, Old Norse aptann, Danish aften (...)
Dutch etymology states that the origin is unclear:
"Volgens een recente theorie wijzen de ongewone wisselingen en de beperkte verspreiding van het woord op niet-Indo-Europese herkomst." (According to a recent theory, the uncommon changes/varieties and the limited spread of the word suggest a non-Indo-European origin.)

OLB has three fragments with the word, in two varieties:

1 [012/23] Frya's Tex
THES MORNES THES MIDDÉIS ÀND THES ÉWENDES

2 [047/25] bad times; on all burgs
BY ÉVIND AN THENE MIDDEL.SÉ

3 [198/07] black Adel
HWAND .S.ÉWENDIS FON THÉRE SELVARE DÉI

What is the more pure form, ÉWEND or ÉVIND? É means water elsewhere and WENDA/ WENDE also occur. I have no answer for now. This post is for future reference.

09 December 2016

ÉVIN and Minno's inconsistency

ÉWA SÉIT AK. É.LIK WÉTER.LIK. RJUCHT ÀND SLJUCHT
AS WÉTER THAT THRVCH NÉN STORNE.WIND JEFTA AWET OWERS VRSTOREN IS

On page 32, the old sea-king, visionary and philosopher Minno writes:

[032/01]
THÀT WORD ÉWA IS TO FRÁN VMBE AN MÉNA SÉKA TO NOMANDE. 
THERVMBE HET MÀN VS ÉVIN SEZA LÉRTH.
The word "ÉWA" is too sacred for common use,
therefore we have learned to say "ÉVIN" (even).


But at the very end of his writings, he does exactly that: use ÉWA commonly, where it might just as well have been ÉVIN. As far as I could see, this is the only instance in the whole OLB where ÉWA is used in this way. Did Minno (or one of the copyists) make a joke or a mistake here?

[040/07]
HWAND THÀT HJA FVL SEND MITH FALSKA RENKA. 
ÉWA TO FRÉSANE AS HJARA SWETE WINA MITH DÉJANDE FENIN.
because they are full of false tricks, 
evenly (he uses the word ÉWA) to be feared as their sweet wine with deadly poison.

English etymology-site about even (adj.):
Old English efen "level," also "equal, like; calm, harmonious; equally; quite, fully; namely," [...] Old Saxon eban, Old Frisian even "level, plain, smooth," Dutch even, Old High German eban, German eben, Old Norse jafn, Danish jævn, Gothic ibns [...]
Etymologists are uncertain whether the original sense was "level" or "alike." Used extensively in Old English compounds, with a sense of "fellow, co-" (as in efeneald "of the same age;" Middle English even-sucker "foster-brother"). [...]

Other uses in OLB of ÉVIN/ÉVEN/EVIN/EVEN, often in combination with AS/ALS/ALSA/LIK and BLÍD (with improvised, close-to-original translations):

(just) like, (just) as, evenly, as ... as/so, equally, etc.

[001/23]
ÉVIN AS IK EN WRENTLIKE FOLK.S MODER WÉSEN WÉRE
just like if I had been a true Folk-Mother

[014/005]
J SKILUN THAN ÉVIN FRY BILYVA FON VNFRYA WELD 
AS JVWA SWITE RINSTRAMA FON THÀT SALTE WÉTER THÉR ÀNDELÁSE SÉ
then you would remain evenly free of forced dominance 
as your sweet rivers from the salt water of the endless sea

[033/25]
THA KRÉKALANDER HJA TOMET EVEN HÀRDE MINADE AS VS AJN FOLK
the Creeklanders loved her almost as much as our own folk

[035/06]
THÉR EVEN LIK HI IN KÀRKA ÀND HOLA HÉMA
who, just like he, live in churches and holes

[035/12]
HJARA BLOD UT TO SÛGANE. ÉVEN AS VAMPÍRA DVA
suck their blood, like bellyworms do

[046/07]
DAHWILE WY VSA ALDER ALDESTA SKRIFTUN ÉVIN RÉD LÉSA MÜGA
AS THÉRA THÉR JESTER SKRÉVEN SIND
while we can read our very-oldest scripts as easily 
as those that were written yesterday

[065/10]
GVNGON HJA EVIN DRIST VPPER BURCH LÁS
just as rashly they attacked the burg

[067/09]
KÀLTA THÉR NÉI.T SEZE. ÉVEN.BLÍD VPPET WÉTER AS VPPET LAND HLÁPA MACHTE
Kelta, who allegedly could walk just as easily on water as on land

[070/04]
THÉRVMBE SEND THA É.LANDA EVIN BLÍD RÁWER É.LANDA AS JON.HIS É.LANDA HÉTEN
therefore, the islands are just as easily called Robber-Islands, as Jon's-Islands

[088/08]
ÉVIN MILD FÁR AL HJARA BERN
equally generous to all her children

[102/23]
ÉVIN THA ALDA FON DÉGUM
evenly the old-of-days (the same applies to the elderly)

[111/18]
ÉVIN AS TO LYDA.HIS.BURCH
just like at Lyda's-Burgh

[112/21]
DÁNA IST KVMEN THÀT HJA SÉR WICHANDLIK EWRDEN SEND. 
MEN TOMET ÉVIN DVM SEND ASET KWIK THÀT HJA FÀNSA 
ÀND ÉVIN ERM AS THA TWISK.LÁNDAR HWÉR MITH HJA ORLOGE
The end result is, that they have become very brave, 
but almost as dumb as the animals they catch 
and as poor as the Twisklanders they fight.

[115/14]
ÉVIN SA THET WILDE HORS SINA MÀNNA SKED. 
NÉI THÀT HETH SINA RIDDER GERS.FALLICH MÁKAD HETH. 
ÉVIN SÁ SKEDDE JRTHA HJRA WALDA ÀND BERGA
Just like the wild horse shakes its mane, 
after throwing its rider in the grass, 
so Earth shook her woods and mountains.

[123/05]
VS LÁN SKOLD.VS ÉVIN BLÍD TO DÉLATH WRDE
our wage would be paid to us just as willingly (either way, we would be rewarded)

[139/29]
THAT.ER ÉVIN VNFORSTOREN WRDE THÀT KALDE STÉN
that he becomes as imperturbable as cold stone

[150/32]
ÉVIN AS.ER HETTO NÉI KATTA.BURCH SKIKTE
just like he sent Hetto to Kattaburgh

[157/21]
ÉVIN AS A.POL.LÁNJA BISKOJADON HJA ÀFTERNÉI LYDA.S BURCH ÀND ET ALDER.GÁ
just like Apollania, they afterwards visited Lydasburgh and the Alderga

[159/25]
ÉVIN BLÍD AS.T SÉD THÉRA GODA KRÛDUM FON VNDERNE GRVND UT VNTKÉMTH (...) 
ÉVEN BLÍD BRENGTH TÍD THA SKADLIKA KRUDA AN.T LJUCHT
Just as the seed of good herbs springs up from the ground (...)
so time brings to light the harmful seed

[160/26]
THÉRTHRVCH MÉI THAT ÉNE FOLK THÀT ÔRE FOLK ÉVIN MIN FORSTÁN
AS THJU KV THENE HVND ÀND THI WOLF THÀT SKÉP
as a result, the one folk can just as little understand the other folk,
as the cow the dog and the wolf the sheep

[161/15]
SÁ DVATH STV ÉVIN ALSA
then you must do just the same

[161/30]
THAT FRYA.S JEFTHA GOD.IS TÁLE HIR ÉVIN VNFORLETH BIHALDEN IS
that Frya's or God's language was preserved equally undamaged here

[165/03]
ÉVIN ALS WY.T FRÁNA LJUCHT FON FÀSTA VPHOLDA.
ÉVIN SÁ HOLDON SE ÔLLERWECHS FJUR IN HJARA HÛSA VP
just like we uphold the sacred light of Festa,
so they hold up fire in all their houses

[191/01]
ÉVIN AS THAM MITHA MÀNNUM INOVIR THA HÛSHALDNE WELDE 
GVNG.ER MITH THA KÀNINGGAR INOVIR HJARA STÁT AND FOLKAR DVAN
just like it ruled over the households through the men
it went on ruling over their state and peoples through the kings

[195/19]
THÁ WILD.ER ÉVIN GOD SIN AMBT BIHALDA
then he wished to retain his office as well

[209/01]
LÉTAR HÀVON HJA FON.ET SLÁVONA FOLK WIVA RÁVATH ÉVIN SA THA HLITHÁWAR
later they have stolen wives from the Slave-folk, just like the Hlitháwar

26 November 2016

Baltic Magus-Land on Idrisi map of 1154 CE

Tabula Rogeriana (lit. "The Book of Roger" in Latin), is a description of the world and world map created by the Arab geographer, Muhammad al-Idrisi, in 1154. (wiki)
On the Latinised version of this map by Konrad Miller (1928), "ard al magus" lies in what seems to be the Baltic region, translated by Miller as Zaubererland; magicians-land or Heidenland; heathen-land (source, pp. 148-149). Credit for connecting Ard-al-Magus to OLB-Magí goes to S. Puranen from Finland (see below).

fragment of Miller's copy of Idrisi map (north and south reversed) ~ see blue markings

In the Oera Linda-book, Mágí and Mágjara are associated with Finna. From translation Sandbach:
One hundred and one years after the submersion of Aldland a people came out of the East. That people was driven by another. Behind us, in Twiskland (Germany), they fell into disputes, divided into two parties, and each went its own way. Of the one no account has come to us, but the other came in the back of our Schoonland, which was thinly inhabited, particularly the upper part. Therefore they were able to take possession of it without contest, and as they did no other harm, we would not make war about it. Now that we have learned to know them, we will describe their customs, and after that how matters went between us. They were not wild people, like most of Finda's race; but, like the Egyptians, they have priests and also statues in their churches. The priests are the only rulers; they call themselves Magyars, and their headman Magy. He is high priest and king in one. The rest of the people are of no account, and in subjection to them. This people have not even a name; but we call them Finns, because although all the festivals are melancholy and bloody, they are so formal that we are inferior to them in that respect. But still they are not to be envied, because they are slaves to their priests, and still more to their creeds. They believe that evil spirits abound everywhere, and enter into men and beasts, but of Wr-alda's spirit they know nothing.

According to Goffe Jensma, this is nonsense, and he theorizes that a supposed 19th century creator with this actually parodied orthodox protestants ('fijnen') and their superstition (magical thinking).

On page 111-112 of De Gemaskerde God (2004):
"Deze absurde verbinding van Magi, Magyaren en Finnen ..." (This absurd connection of Magi, Magyars and Finns ...)

"... de historische kolder over Magíaren en Fínnen ..." (the historical nonsense about Magíars and Finns)

The main purpose of this blog post is to show another source for Magus-Finland relation, which will not have been known in 19th century Netherlands. This removes one of the main pillars of Jensma's doctrine. Researcher S. Puranen wrote to me many more interesting facts and thoughts related to the Idrisi map, which I hope he will publish about in the future. I will just add some further information below, not going into much detail for now.

~~~

The Arabic text by Al-Idrisi that accompanied the maps was translated into Finnish by Sahban Mroueh in 2012 (Hermeetikko Nro.1). Here is a translation into English and graphic, both by S. Puranen:
In the fourth part of this seventh continent lies most lands of Russia, Finnmark, Tavastia, Estonia and Magus: and these lands consist mostly of wilderness, steppes, inhabited villages and persisting snow, with little populated areas, whereas land of Finnmark is land where lies plenty of villages, buildings, sheep and no other thriving built-up areas other than cities of Abrarah and Velmaar. These are two large cities but one can see nomadism and wildness rules their inhabitants. They have less food than the inhabitants need and they have continuous rain.

It's 200 miles to west from city of Saqto from city of Velmaar. King of Finnmark has lands and buildings in the island of Nerbagah mentioned previously. And from the city of Velmaar to area of Qutulu-river's other fork is 80 miles, and from Qutulu-river to city of Regoldah 100 miles, Regoldah being a great thriving city at the river delta flowing to the sea. It's a city belonging to the land of Tabasti and this land has plenty of villages and buildings but less populated areas. This land is colder than Finnmark, with frost and rain present all times. From city of Anho it's 200 miles to city of Regoldah.

Anho is beautiful inhabited city and part of Estland. City of Vloor belongs also to Estland cities and it's a small city like a big fortress, it's inhabitants are farmers with little products yet plenty of sheep. Vloor is 6 leagues to south-east from city of Anho. From city of Anho to river Burno is 50 miles going by sea shore and fortress of Velmos is 100 miles away from the shore. During winter it's an empty fortress and it's inhabitants flee to caves lying far from the sea. They receive shelter from there and make camp fire for whole period of winter and coldness, and won't relinquish it until summer comes and black colour fades from shores and rain stops, upon when they return to their fortress. From this fortress to city of Medsuunah is 300 miles, Medsuunah being a large thriving inhabited city, it's population large and inhabitants are fire worshipping Magi.

From there to the city of Suono belonging to the land of the Magi is 70 miles going by shore. Amongst the populated areas further away from the Magi's sea shore is city of Vapi. Distance between it and the sea is 6 leagues and it's a 4 day journey from city of Vap to city of Vloor. City of Jintiaar on 7 days to the west from the city of Vloor. It's a large thriving city atop an unclimbable mountain. It's inhabitants entrench themselves against Russian bandits and this city doesn't lie under authority of any king. And to the lands of Russia belongs the city of Martur. It's a city lying at the mouth of river Dinset and city of Sarmal is four days journey south from city of Martur.


List of toponyms in the area of Ard-al-Magus, as compiled by S. Puranen (edited by me, JO) ard - area; bilad - land; gezira - island; nahr - river:
bilad fimark = etymologically Finnmark, but context of its cities means it must mean here southern Finland
ard tabast/ Tabasta = Tavastia, central Finland region
bilad al nibaria = Bjarmia
Velmaar = Vehmaa, Finland
ard/ bilad al rusia/ Rusla = Russia
nahr bernu/ Burno = river Pärnu, Estonia
nahr katalu/ Qutulu = allegedly river Göta älv, Sweden, alternatively river Kokemäenjoki, Finland
anhu = Hanila, Estonia
ragtun/ Regoldah = Ragvalda, Finland or nearby Rauma
abura/ Abrarah = Åbo, Finland
sasuna/ Saqto = Sigtuna, Sweden
falmus/ Velmos = perhaps Valamo/ Valaam island, Karelia
madsuna/ Medsuunah = perhaps Mezen i.e. Medynske in 1595, alternatively Medvegalis or Medininkai
suada/ Suono = Sudovia, alternatively Suomi/suomalaiset/Chuds or Finland/Finns
sarnu/ Sarmal = perhaps Samara, Russia
marturi/ Martur = perhaps Marijampo or Merkine
gezira amaznius/ Amazon islands = Terra Feminarum or Finland, also allegedly in Turku archipelago
Infographics by S. Puranen:

this infographic supports the al-Idrisi's connection between Magis and women islands, about which more later

22 November 2016

The versatile BRUD-word

'Boerenbruiloft' (farmers' wedding) in North-Holland, by J.P. van Horstok, ca. 1808

Het zinryk Bruiwoort, en het geen men deriveert 
Van bruien, dient wel om zyn zinrykheit geleert: 
't Is springen, lopen, doen, verquisten, domineren, 
't Is klimmen, snyen, en verquanzelen, bezeeren, 
Quaatmaken, futzelen, verderven, plagen, gaan, 
En smyten, schoppen; … 't is ook foppen, steken, slaan; 
't Is komen, seggen; en 't is kappen, vliegen, vallen, 
Etcetera, ja dat noch 't mooisten is van allen, 
Vrouw-eeren; is 't niet recht? wie heeft van sulk een woort, 
Zo zinryk, ergens in de werelt meer gehoort? 
("Vol-Geestige Werken" S. van Rusting, 1712)

Some OLB-'skeptics' theorise that the manuscript was created by an individual or a small group of individuals who wanted to make fun of the religious and/or cultural-historical establishment in the Netherlands or more specifically in its province Friesland. They would have to agree that the creator(s) must have had an extensive knowledge of the Dutch language and its older varieties.

One of the words that would have been perfectly suitable to make fun and jokes is the verb bruden/ bruien. The alleged creator(s) would have known this most versatile word and he would not have missed the opportunity to use it. However, as we see in the below fragments, in OLB it is only used in two ways: go/ leave/ journey and spoil/ corrupt/ pervert.

Dictionaries about bruden/ bruien:

Richthofen (Old-Frisian, 1840): Brida


Weiland (Dutch, 1859): Bruijen


WNT (Dictionary of Dutch language, composed later) gtb.inl.nl/bruien (many different meanings here)

possibly related nouns:
BRVD (mud, mess, waste) - 1 (see forum 4 March 2015: link)
BRUD (also spelled BRÉID; bride) - 3,6 (see blogpost: link)

verbs:

(varieties of BRUDA: go/ leave/ journey; total: 11 ~ Note: also see BRIT/ BRITH)
(with HINNE; away:)
HINNE BRÛDA - 2,4
BRÛDON/BRUDON (STOLKES) HINNE - 8,11
BRÛDE HINNE - 12,15
BRUDA HINNA - 17
(with WÉI; away:)
BRÛDON WÉI - 9
WÉI BRÛDA - 16
(other:)
BRÛDE - 7
BRÛDON - 18

(varieties of VRBRUDA: spoil/ corrupt/ pervert; total: 10)
VRBRUDA (inf.) - 5
VRBRUD, VRBRÛD (perf.) - 10,19,22
VRBRÛDE (adj. derived from verb) - 13
VRBRUDA/VRBRÛDA ( ,, ) - 21,23,24
VRBRÛDE (inf.) - 14
VRBRÛDING (noun derived from verb) - 20

######

1 [004/05]
ANDA BRVD SITTE

2 [018/12]
SA MÜGON HJA HINNE BRÛDA

3 [028/27]
SA MÉI SIN BRUD ...

4 [030/15]
HY MÉI HINNE BRÛDA SA.R KVMEN IS

5 [038/15] (see other blog post)
THRVCH WANKÉTHINGA WISTON HJA ALLE TO WISA ÀND TO VRBRUDA.
Ottema: verbreiden

6 [041/12]
... EN BRUD TO SÉKA

7 [041/22]
TILTHJU HI UT OF LANDE BRÛDE

8 [055/04]
(HJA) BRÛDON STOLKES HINNE

9 [056/15]
THA GODA BRÛDON WÉI

10 [061/11]
WAS THÉR HWA FON VS FOLK THÉR.ET ALSA ÀRG VRBRUD HÉDE
O: verbruid

11 [067/03]
BRUDON HI STOLKES HINNE

12 [074/07]
THRÉ MONATHA ÀFTER BRÛDE GÉRT HINNE

13 [078/27]
THÀT VRBRÛDE ÀND VRBASTERDE SLACHT
O: verwende

14 [080/04]
THAT HJARA SÉDE VRBRÛDE KOSTE
O: verloren gaan

15 [086/28]
BRÛDE HJA HINNE

16 [110/15]
TILTHJU THJU FLÁTE WITHER WÉI BRÛDA

17 [120/23]
WI ... BRUDA HINNA

18 [156/17]
FON WAL.HALLA.GÁRA BRÛDON HJA ALINGEN THÉRA SÛDER HRÉNUM

19 [161/16]
THJU TÁLE ... IS ... VRBRÛD
O: verdorven

20 [161/24]
VRBRÛDING VSRA RÉNE TÁLE
O: verontreiniging

21 [197/12]
VSA VRBRUDA BROTHARUM
O: verbasterde

22 [205/14]
THA JUTTAR WÉRON SUNT LÔNG VRBRUD
O: verdorven

23 [209/07]
MITH HULPE FON THA VRBRÛDA FÁMNA
O: ontaarde

24 [210/30]
HJARA VRBRUDA LÉRE
O: verfoeijelijke

19 November 2016

translation variety example

Some OLB-'skeptics' argue that the language of the OLB is simply Old-Frisianised 19th century Dutch. Strong arguments can be made against that. For example, there are many sentences that are still not clear. The example below shows how much variety there is between the existing translations. 

(Prior phrase in Sandbach's translation: "They cunningly made themselves masters of our laws and customs, and ..." ~ The object of the following phrase is, thus: our laws and customs ~ VSA ÉWA ÀND SETMA)


[038/15]
THRVCH WANKÉTHINGA WISTON HJA ALLE TO WISA ÀND TO VRBRUDA

1-Ottema (Dutch, 1872/1876):
door listen en drogredenen wisten zij alles te bewijzen en te verbreiden.
2-Sandbach (English, 1876):
by craft and subtlety were able to explain and spread them around.
3-Wirth (German, 1933):
durch falsche Auslegungen wußten sie alles zu weisen und umzudeuten.
4-Overwijn (Dutch, 1951):
door bedriegelijke redeneringen wisten zij alles te duiden en te bederven.
5-Jensma (Dutch, 2006):
door wanspraak wisten ze alles te verdraaien en te verbruien.
6-De Heer (Dutch, 2008):
door wanspreken wisten zij alles te duiden en te verbruiden.
7-Raubenheimer (English, 2011):
by fallacies they wished to explain everything and expand thereon.
8-Menkens (German, 2013):
durch Trugreden/ Wahnsprache wußten sie alles umzudeuten und zu entstellen.
9-Lien (Norse, 2013):
gjennom falsk tale visste de å anvise og forderve alt.

WANKÉTHINGA (noun plur.)
D: listen en drogredenen (ruses and fallacies) - 1
D: bedriegelijke redeneringen (fallacies) - 4
D: wanspraak ('vainspeech') - 5*
D: wanspreken ('vainspeaking') - 6*
E: craft and subtlety - 2
E: fallacies - 7
G: falsche Auslegungen (false explanations) - 3
G: Trugreden/ Wahnsprache (fallacies/ 'vainspeech') - 8*
N: falsk tale (speak falsely) - 9

* Translations 5, 6 and 8b are the most literal, but the words are obsolete, unclear and seemingly inappropriate.

WISA (verb)
D: bewijzen (prove, establish) - 1
D: duiden (interpret) - 4,6
D: verdraaien (distort) - 5
E: explain - 2,7
G: weisen (point out?) - 3
G: umzudeuten (reinterpret) - 8
N: anvise (point out) - 9

VRBRUDA (verb)
D: verbreiden - 1*
D: bederven (corrupt, pervert) - 4
D: verbruien/ verbruiden ( ,, ) - 5,6
E: spread around - 2*
E: expand thereon - 7*
G: umzudeuten (reinterpret) - 3
G: entstellen (distort) - 8
N: forderve (corrupt, pervert) - 9

* That Ottema mistranslated or misinterpreted VRBRUDA as 'verbreiden' (spread/ propagate), which was copied by Sandbach and Raubenheimer, is remarkable, since the other 9 times this word is used (incl. varieties), he translated more appropriately: verbruid, verwende, verloren gaan, verdorven (2x), verontreiniging, verbasterde, ontaarde, verfoeijelijke (see other blog post).

Main question i.m.o. is how to interpret WISA.

My own provisional translation:
they managed to explain and distort them all through misinterpretations.

10 November 2016

outsmarting all earlier translations

The following may seem just a detail, but it once more shows how all previous translations can still be further improved.

[029/26]
SAHWERSA THÉR SWETHNATA ET SÉMNE KYVA ÀND SANA
If any of our neighbours quarrel and fight...


VR ENZE SÉKA THA VR LÁND

(transliteration Ottema/ Sandbach: vr enga sêka, tha vr lând)

Note that the red and blue marked translations differ significantly from each other:

translation original language English
Ottema 1872 over eenige zaak (anders) dan over land over any matter (other) than land
Sandbach 1876 - about any matter except land
Wirth 1933 über andere Sachen als Land over other matters than land
Overwijn 1951 over een of andere zaak zoals over land over any matter such as land
Jensma 2006 over andere zaken dan over land over other matters than land
De Heer 2008 over enige zaken zoals over land over some matters such as land
Raubenheimer 2011 - over any matter other than land
Lien 2013 over noen (andre) saker enn over land over some (other) matters than land
Menkens 2013 über einzelne Dinge/Sachen wie über Land(besitz) over individual matters such as land(-ownership)


I think THA does not mean 'other than'/ 'except' or 'such as' here, but  'or' (Dutch: of/ dan wel), as it does in the following fragments, also written by Minno:

[030/10] ET WÍRING.GA THA TO AL.MAN.LAND
at Wyringga or at Almanland
[030/30] THÀT.ET FOLK VS LÉT DVATH THA BISTÉLLETH
that the folk does us harm or steals from us

 Thus, the translation would be:

over any cause* or over land 

(* or: case; plural in original; Dutch/ German: zaak/ Sache)