18 June 2014

LJUDSBÁS ~ βασιλεύς

Silver coin (4 drachme, ca. 305-283 BCE, Alexandria) 
with portrait of Ptolemy I Soter: "PTOLEMAIOU BASILEOS"

wikipedia:
Basileus (Greek: βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history. [...]
The etymology of basileus is unclear.
The following clue is worth considering, in my opinion:

Source: Das magusanische Europa, oder: Phönizier in den Innen-Landen des europäischen Westens bis zur Weser und Werra: Skythisches Einvolk und Einsprache in Hoch- und Vorder-Asien, Nord-Africa, spaeter Ost- und West-Europa, Volume 4 (1834), Wilhelm Gottlieb Levin von Donop (p.197: list of "Semitische und Gaalische Herleitungen")

Not all suggested etymologies in this list are convincing, but this one is, to me: 

Bas-Luis = Vorstand des Volks (German) = president/ leader of the people
LJU(D) or LJV(D) in OLB, see earlier post about HÉRLJU - Heruli.
hljóð - icelandic
ljuda - swedish
lyd - norse, danish
lui, lieden - dutch
leute - german

(note the name LJUDPOLD - Luitpold - Leopold)

The Online Etymology Dictionary has:
boss - "overseer," (...) from Dutch baas "a master," Middle Dutch baes, of obscure origin.
And on the dutch Etymologiebank it says (translated):
baas - leader, head of something (...) of unknown origin (...)
There are no related words in other Indo-European languages.
It is probably a word from a non-Indo-European substrate.

Derived from Dutch are:
boss, base, bass - english
bas, baß, baas - german
bas - danish, swedish, norse
Are established etymologists paid to play dumb?

Basileus = luisbaas (dutch) = LJU(D)S.BÁS (fryas)

Here are the OLB fragments with BÁS (master, boss, etc.), four of which referring to the Mágí (fragments 4, 5, 6, 7):


1 [002/26]
THA BÁSA ÀND HJARA STORSTA SVNUM
KRUPTON BY THA LODDARIGA FINNA MANGÉRTUM.


2 [036/19]
THÉRVMBE KJASTH VS FOLK SIN FORSTA. GRÉVA. RÉDJÉVAR
ÀND ALLE BÁSA ÀND MÁSTERA
UT.A WISESTA THÉRA GODA MÀNNISKA



3 [038/04]
THAT ALLERMANNALIK THÉR HJA HÉRA WILDE RIK ÀND LUKICH SKOLDE WERTHA.
ÀND ÉNIS BÁS SKOLDE WERTHA OVIR ALLE KÉNINGKRIK JRTHA.S

 

4 [079/14]
THRVCH WODINS DOR ÀND DERTENHÉD
WAS THENE MÁGÍ BÁS WRDEN OVIR SKÉNLANDIS ASTAR DÉL.


5 [081/16]
THENE MAGÍ WRDE BÁS


6 [084/27]
IK HÀV THI FRÉJETH JEFTH IK BÁS SKILDE WERTHA
OVIR ALLE LÁNDA ÀND FOLKRA FRYAS


7 [115/04]
THRJU JÉR LÉTTER WÉR THENE MÁGÍ BÁS. SVNDER STRID


8 [122/02]
ALSA NÉARCHUS THÉR SELVA NÉN BÁS OVIR BILÍWA NE KV


9 [141/13]
THÉR NE SKILUN NÉNE ORA MÁSTERA NACH FORSTA NER BÁSA NAVT NÉSA
AS THÉRA THÉR BI MÉNA WILLE KÉREN SEND.


10 [190/30]
JAHWEDER MÀN IS THENE FÉDER FON SIN HÛSHALDEN
HÉRVMBE SKIL.ER ÁK BÁS ÀND RJUCHTER OVIR WÉSA.

15 June 2014

OLB Family charts

1. Swéthirte & Friso: 2 daughters, 2 sons (3rd. century BCE)

In this chart Friso's two brothers in law from his first marriage, Hetto and Bruno, are not mentioned. They both married daughters of influential kings (see p.205 of Sandbach translation) and settled in Kattaburch (Saxanamarka), resp. Mannagarda-wrda.

Note the names:
WIL-fréthe, WIL-jow, WIL-him
wich-HIRTE, swét-HIRTE, sjucht-HIRTE


2. Wiljow & Fréthorik: 3 daughters, 2 sons (3rd. century BCE)


3. Adela & Apol: 1 daughter, 3 sons (6th. century BCE)

10 June 2014

DIAP - deep


(note "Lutjeswaard" southwest of Texel -> LJUDWARD)

deep - English
diep - Dutch
dyb - danish
dyp - norse
djup - swedish
djúpt - icelandic
djip - frisian
tief - German

to deepen - english
uitdiepen, verdiepen - dutch
utdype - norse
djupna, fördjupa - swedish
fördjupa - danish
dýpka - icelandic
ferdjipje - frisian

vertiefen - german

depth - english 
diepte - dutch
Tiefe - german
dybde - danish, norse
djup (-het) - swedish
dýpt - icelandic
djipte - frisia

DJAP {1,5} deep
DIAP {3} ,,
DIAPA {2} ,,
UT.DIAPA {4} to deepen


1 [026/13] (rjuchta)
SA BRÀNGE MON THAM DJAP ANDA LANDA WÉI

zo brenge men die diep in de landen weg
then one must bring them away deep into the lands


2 [058/22] (Tunis & Inka)
EN ÉLAND MITH TWAM DIAPA SLINKA
een eiland met twee diepe slenken (geulen)
an island with two deep gullies



3 [106/24] (Apollánjas burch)
DIAP THRIJA SJVGUN FÉT
diep drie x zeven voet
deep three x seven feet



4 [124/17] (Ljudgért)
THÀT.ER THA DRAGE STRÉTE UT.DIAPA WILDE
dat hij de droge straat wilde uitdiepen
that he wanted to deepen the dry street



5 [150/24] (Friso)
KATTA.BURCH THÀT DJAP INNA SAXANAR MARKA LÉID
Kattaburch, dat diep in de Saxanarmarka ligt
Kattaburch, that lies deep in the Saxanarmarka

GRÀVA, DELVA - grave, delve

As a sequel to the previous post about "(BI-) DOBBA", a study of the words "(BI-) DELVA" and "(BI-) GRÀVA".

The Dutch toponyms Delft and Graft are both derived from these verbs.





















graf (-steen) - dutch
grave (-stone) - english
grab (-stein) - german
gröf (-steinn) - icelandic
grav (-sten, -stein) - swedish, norse, danish
grêf (-stien) - frisian
gref (-sten) - oldfrisian


gracht, graft - dutch, german
grøft - danish
vallgrav - swedish
vollgrav - norse
virkisgröf - icelandic

(op-) graven, delven - dutch
grewa, greua, delua - oldfrisian
delban, telban, delfan - oldsaxon, oldgerman, oldenglish
grêven, dolle - frisian
grafa - icelandic
gräva, gruva - swedish
grave, gruve - norse, danish
graben (schaufeln) - german
to delve (dig) - english

begraven, bedelven - dutch
bidelua, bedelua - oldfrisian
begrave - danish, norse
begrava - swedish
begraben - german
begroeven - frisian
(to burry - english)

====

{fragment number, below}

 ### verbs

HJA DELVATH {9} ze delven, graven op
DÀLVA {1} delven, opgraven
TO DÀLVANE {3} delven, begraven
TO DELVANE {14,15,17} delven, (op-)graven
BIDVLWEN {2,4} bedolven, begraven, verborgen
BIDELVEN {16} bedolven, overspoeld

IS BIGRÀVEN {7b} is begraven
WAS GRÀVEN {10b} was gegraven

### nouns

GRÀFT {8,10a,11,12} gracht
GRÀF.STÉN, GRÀFSTÉN {6,7ac} grafsteen
GRÁWA {5} graven (plur.)
GRÀVA {13} idem
GRÉVUM {18} idem
GRÉVA {19} idem

==== OLB fragments

1 [010/10] (Lyda, Finda, Frya)
MÉT.AL UT JRTHA DÀLVA
metaal uit de aarde delven
delve metal out of the earth

2 [011/01] (Lyda, Finda, Frya)
BUTA HIRA TEX WAS THÉR.IN ELLA BIDVLWEN
buiten (behalve) haar Tex was daarin alles bedolven
except her Tex, all was burried (covered, hidden) in there

3 [013/01] (Tex Fryas)
HJARA ASKE FIFTICH FÍT ANDA GRVND TO DÀLVANE
hun as vijftig voet (diep) in de de grond te begraven (delven)
to burry their ashes fifty feet (deep) in the ground

4 [049/27] (àrge tid)
THAT ELLA VNDERE SÉ BIDVLWEN WERE
dat alles onder de zee bedolven was
that all was hidden (burried) under the sea

5 [085/01] (Frana)
MITHA NACHTFÜGLUN TO THA GRÁWA OMMEWÁRA
met de nachtvogels bij de graven rondwaren
haunt the graves with the nightbirds

6 [096/26] (ode to Adela)
THRJU BERN WÉRON VP JENSKE GRÀF.STÉN SPRONGEN
drie kinderen waren op gindse (die ... daar) grafsteen gesprongen
three kids had jumped on that gravestone overthere

7 [097/23] (ode to Adela)
BY THA GRÀFSTÉN (...) IS MÀM HIRA LIK BIGRÀVEN.
VPPJRA GRÀF.STÉN HETH MÀN THISSA WORDA HWRYTEN
Bij de grafsteen (...) is Mam haar lijk begraven.
Op haar grafsteen heeft men deze woorden gegrift.
At that gravestone (...) Mom her body was burried.
On her gravestone these words were written.


8 [106/24] (Apollánjas burch)
EN GRÀFT. DIAP THRIJA SJVGUN FÉT WÍD THRIJA TWILIF FÉT
een gracht, diep drie x zeven voet, wijd drie x twaalf voet
a canal, deep three x seven feet, wide three x twelve feet

9 [109/13]
(Apollánjas fárt)
THÉR DELVATH HJA ÍSER JRTHA
daar delven ze ijzererts
there they dig up iron-ore (-earth)

10 [110/31] (Apollánjas fárt)
ABEFTA THÉRE FLÍT WAS EN GRÀFT GRÀVEN
achter die vliet was een gracht gegraven
behind that river a canal was dug

11 [111/04] (Apollánjas fárt)
A BÉDE SÍDA THÉRE GRÀFT
aan beide zijden der gracht
on both sides of the canal

12 [116/30] (Fréthorik)
THI GRÀFT THÉR FONT ALDERGÁ THWERES TO THET LAND THRVCH HLÁPEN HÉDE
de gracht die van het Aldergá dwars door het land gelopen had
the canal that had run from Aldergá straight through the land

13 [127/23] (Ljudgért)
VP VSA GRÀVA GRÁJA ÀND HULA
op onze graven schreien (schreeuwen, grienen) en huilen
cry and howl on our graves

14 [134/29] (Jes-us)
VMBE MÉT.AL TO DELVANE
om metaal te delven
to delve (dig up) metal

15 [137/16] (Jes-us)
TO DELVANE TO ERANE ÀND TO SÉJANE
te delven, te ploegen en te zaaien
to delve (dig), to plough and to sow

16 [143/14]
(Koneréd)
THRVCH THENE SALTA SÉ BIDELVEN
door de zoute zee bedolven (overspoeld)
overwhelmed (flooded) by the salt sea

17 [143/28] (Koneréd)
THRVCH SLÁTA TO DELVANE ÀND KÁDIKA TO MÁKJANE
Door sloten te delven en kadijken te maken
by delving ditches and making quay-dikes

18 [192/24] (Rika)
JOW SKINA SKILUN VRFÉRTH FON UT.A GRÉVUM RÍSA
uw schimmen ('schijnen') zullen vervaard (angstig) vanuit de graven rijzen
your ghosts ('shines') will rise frightened out of the graves

19 [203/16] (Askar)
THÀT BLOD SÍGATH INNA JOWRE GRÉVA
het bloed zijgt (stroomt langzaam) in uw graven
the blood (slowly) streams into your graves


===

Two fragments related to the concept 'gravestone':

[009/02] (Finda)
VNDER KESTLIKE STÉNA LÉIDON HJA HJRA LIK DÀL
onder kostelijke (kostbare) stenen legden ze haar lijk neer
under costly stones they laid down her corpse

[028/29] (stuurwetten)
VMBE HIRA FRYA.DULF EN STÉN TO TO WJANDE
om haar (omgekomen) vrijer een steen toe te wijden
to dedicate a stone to her (perished) lover

09 June 2014

BIDOBBA ~ dobbe, tobbe, doop


dip/ dope, dibhole, tub
doop, dobbe, tobbe

"Frisian king Radbod refuses baptism"

Other NW-European words for "baptism" and "to baptize" are:

doop, dopen - Dutch
dåp, døpe - Norse
dop, döpa - Swedish
dåb, døbe - Danish
Taufe, taufen - German

According to Dutch etymology, these words are derived from 4th century Gothic:

It is usually assumed that the Christian meaning of the word arose in Gothic. Bishop Wulfila, who translated the bible into Gothic in the 4th century, used 'daupjan' for the Greek word 'báptein' (to submerge, dip). This meaning would have arrived in Bavaria (Germany) with the Gothic missionaries, and from there have spread over continental Europe.
(original text: Vaak wordt aangenomen dat de christelijke betekenis van het woord is ontstaan in het Gotisch. Bisschop Wulfila, die in de 4e eeuw de bijbel in het Gotisch vertaalde, gaf Grieks báptein ‘onderdompelen, dopen’ met daupjan weer. Deze betekenis zou dan met de Gotische missie naar Beieren (Duitsland) zijn gekomen en zich van daaruit over het vasteland van Europa hebben verbreid.)
  

Edgar Degas, "le tub" (1886)

Let's see what etymologists say about:

tub - English, French
tobbe - Dutch

"late 14c., from Middle Low German, Middle Dutch, or Middle Flemish tubbe, of uncertain origin" (etymonline: tub)

"Origin unknown. [...] Might be connected to old-Dutch 'dobbo' - waterpool, but then the t- can't be explained." (etymologiebank: tobbe) The German word 'taufen' (see above) serves as an example how words with d- can change into t-.

(original text: Herkomst onbekend. [...] Misschien is het te verbinden met onl. dobbo ‘waterpoel’, maar dan is de t- niet te verklaren.)
 



The old-Dutch and Frisian noun 'dobbe' means dibhole, a dug pit filled with water, a puddle, pool or pond. (source1 ; source2 ; source3)

This word is related to the old-Dutch verb 'dobben' or 'dubben' - to dig (the modern word is 'graven').

Modern Frisian still has the verb 'bedobje' - to burry, overwhelm, hide (in the ground or in water).

The OLB has 5 fragments with the same verb BIDOBBA, of which #1 and #3 have the litteral meaning, and the others a metaphorical one (to win over - Dutch: inpalmen):


 
1 [049/28] (àrge tid)
FÉLO MÀNNISKA WRDON IN JRTHA BIDOBBEN
veel mensen werden in de aarde bedolven
many people were burried in the earth
 


2 [056/14] (Wodin)
THÉRA THÉR MÁR HILDON FON HJARA BALG AS FON THÀT RJUCHT.
THAM LÉTON HINI BIDOBBA
zij die meer hielden van hun pens, als van het recht,
die lieten zich inpalmen)
those who loved their stomach more than justice ('the right'),
they let him win (them) over


 
3 [115/25] (Fréthorik)
ANNA WOLFA.MONATH LÉIDON THA DÉNE MARKA
FON FRYA.S LÁND VNDER NE SÉ BIDOBBEN.
In de Wolvenmaand lagen de 'déne' (lage, gedane*) marken
van Fryasland onder een zee bedolven.
In the wolvesmonth the 'déne' (low, done*) marks
of Fryasland laid burried under a sea.
 

(*Danmark, Denemarken: ambiguous name)

 
4 [126/01] (Ljudgért)
ÉL.ET THORP IN ROW BIDOBBEN
heel het dorp in rouw gedompeld (bedolven)
the whole village dipped (burried) in grief


 
5 [149/18] (Friso)
HO FRISO ALLE TO BIDOBBE WISTE
hoe Friso allen wist in te palmen

how Friso succeeded in winning them all over

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Possibly related as well:

deep - English
diep - Dutch

dyb - danish
dyp - norse
djup - swedish
djúpt - icelandic
djip - frisian
tief - German

01 June 2014

TJAN JÉR LÉDEN


Three fragments referring to something that happened ten years earlier or later:


[068/19] (about Jon)
10 JÉR AFTER JON WÉI.BRIT WAS
Tien jaar nadat Jon weggebracht (vertrokken, verbannen) was
Ten years after Jon was 'brought away' (expelled)



[117/29] (by Fréthorik)
TJAN JÉR LÉTTERE KÉMON THA STJURA
Tien jaren later kwamen de stuurlui
Ten years later the navigators came



[144/28] (by Koneréd)
THA.S NV THJAN JÉR LÉDEN
dat is nu tien jaren geleden
that is now ten years ago


TJAN JÉR - aldfryas
ten years - english
tien jaar - dutch
zehn Jahre - german
ti år - danish, norse
tio år - swedish
tíu ár - icelandic


And two fragments with just the word "ten":


[007/32] (about Finda)
HWÉR LYDA ANNEN LAVWA MACHT TO DÉJANDE
THÉR DÁDE HJA-WEL TJÀN
waar Lyda één leeuw vermocht te (kon) doden,
daar doodde zij wel tien
where Lyda could kill one lion,
she killed ten




[020/26] (common laws)
[T]HENE MÀRK.RJUCHTER ÀND SINUM HELPAR.
FIF DÉLA [MÀRK.JELD.TJAN DELA] [...]
THÀT THORP TJAN DÉLA.
de marktrechter en zijn helpers
vijf delen, marktgeld tien delen, (...)
het dorp tien delen
the market-judge and his helpers
five parts, market fee ten parts, (...)
the village ten parts